EGH166 Handson Lab
Background 
Gears can be found in just about everything with moving parts. Music boxes, toys, clocks, cars and tape players all have gears. The typical type of gear is a pinion gear however there are many other types of gears each of which meet the needs of certain applications. 
Purpose 
The purpose of this lab is to familiarize you with the properties of torque and speed, and to introduce you to the application of various types of gears. 
Basic Principles 
In this lab writeup, we will cover some basic principles behind: 1. Torque and speed, and 2. Types of gears. 
Lab Experience 
The lab experience will encompass: 1.
Applications of Worm Gears,

Introduction 
Gears are used to perform mechanical work. A common application of gears is to convert from one rotational speed to another through a gear train (or gear box or speed reducer). A clock has two or three hands, each of which spin at different speeds but there is only one motor or power source turning the hands. The clock takes the speed of the input motor, gears it down and drives the second hand, gears it down again to drive the minute hand and down further to drive the hour hand. Several gears allow one power source to drive a variety of objects. 
Torque

When rotational speed is changed through gearing, the rotational force that can be applied also changes. Consider a car traveling on a highway, the car is in high gear traveling fast but with low acceleration ability. When the car approaches a steep incline it down shifts, putting the car in a lower gear, which produces more torque but the car can not go as fast (the engine must turn much faster to maintain speed). The transmission in a car transfers power from the engine to the drive train and moves the car. Power (or energy) is always conserved in any system, so this must also be true for a car's power train. Power, in a rotational system is represented by rotational speed and rotational force (or torque). 
Interplay of Torque and Speed 
In linear motion the relationship of Power, Force, Work and Speed are as follows: _{} _{} _{} _{ } In rotational motion the formulas are identical, we just have some different terms. Rotational force is called Torque and rotational distance is measured in radians or degrees. Power = Torque * (Rotational Speed) A car is equipped with an engine capable of delivering a certain horsepower; the gear that the car is in determines how the power is converted into speed and torque. For a fixed power, if you need more torque the speed must go down or if more speed is needed then the torque available will decrease. A bicycle is another perfect example of how gearing controls toque and speed. Shifting gears on a bicycle is done to make the rider as efficient as possible. Low gear is for going up hills, high gear is used to go fast on smooth flat land. 
Spur Gears 
A pinion or spur gear is a simple gear used to mesh with another gear in the same plane. Spur Gear Terminology

Bevel Gears 
Bevel gears are designed to mesh with each other at 90° angles. This type of drive is used to change the axis of rotation. A differential (which is discussed later in this lab) uses bevel gears to control its motion. 
Rack and Pinion 
A pinion turns and moves a rack in order to convert rotational motion into linear motion. Rack and pinion steering is just one of many applications of this gear set. 
Worm gears 
This type of gear, like the bevel gears, converts the axis of rotation by 90°. A worm gear is used for high ratio speed reduction. When a worm rotates, it moves just one tooth on its meshing gear. (Some double helix worms move two teeth.) Because of the shape of worm gear, the driven gear must be specially made in order to mesh properly. 
Make sketches of equipment
used in class; include them in your lab writeup.
Applications
of Worm Gears 

Bevel
Gears and Racks 
A differential is used to transfer power from the drive shaft to the wheels of the car. When a car turns a corner the wheels move at different speeds, and so travel different distances. Move the Lego™ differential unit provided and prove this to yourself. A differential provides equal force to each wheel while allowing different speeds at each wheel.

Pinions and Sprockets 

Format 
·
Lab reports must be done as a TEAM lab report · Follow given lab report format. · Maximum 45 pages (including figures and tables) 
General Guidelines 
1) Cover
Page 2) Introduction/Background 3) Description
of lab experiments. Include sketches of the equipment you used 4) Solutions
to questions. Follow order presented
in lab handout 