Force Transducers


Force measurement can be divided into direct and indirect comparison methods. Direct comparison is generally based on some form of a beam balance. (Figure 15) Indirect comparison makes use of a calibrated transducer system. Force transducers have been applied to muscle testing and evaluation, as well as research systems to simulate tactile sensation in the skin.






Figure 15 Beam Balance for Force Measurement [4]


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Electrical Resistance Strain Gauge

Semiconductor or Piezoresistive-Type Strain Gauge

Strain Gauge Load Cell

Optoelectric Sensors

Time of Flight Sensors

Binary Sensors


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Support for the development of this module was provided by the National Science Foundation and The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art.

Please send questions or comments to Professor Ron Adrezin or Professor Daniel Raichel.