Transducers are devices that convert input signals of one energy form into signals in another energy form. Both input and output transducers are used. Input transducers are generally known as sensors while output transducers are called actuators. Many of the most popular input transducers convert different types of input energy into an electrical signal. Output transducers or actuators convert a processed signal into display, motion or some other desired outcome.
Transducers can be categorized by application, physical or chemical principles underlying their operation or the method used to convert the input signal into an electrical signal. Table 1 gives a summary of various measured physical parameters and their biomedical applications.
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Table 1 Biomedical transducers 
Support for the development of this module was provided by the National Science Foundation and The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art.
Please send questions or comments to Professor Ron Adrezin or Professor Daniel Raichel.