Joint Venture Proposal for AutoThai Corporation


Submitted by Chrysler Corporation

CHRYSLER'S PROPOSED VENTURE WITH AUTOTHAI

Dear Thailand Team,

Chrysler Motor Corporation represents value, quality, durability and reliability. Through quick innovation and the vast differentiation of products, Chrysler has achieved worldwide brand name recognition which exemplifies unprecedented success and crucial customer satisfaction.

Chrysler's dominance and superiority in the United States minivan market can be seen in their ability to maintain enormous percentages of market share as well as their generation of above average profits in this respective segment. In review, Chrysler initiated this new market by being the first to manufacture and distribute minivans. Since its beginning, through enthusiasm and dedication, Chrysler has followed consumer preferences and has been able to encounter and fulfill a fast developing and continuously increasing minivan market. Currently, minivans represent more than 20 % of Chrysler's volume. At the same time, Chrysler minivans hold a convincing 70% portion of the U.S. minivan market which has led to our reception of numerous awards for quality, customer satisfaction, and the ever-respected Motor Trend Car of the Year recognition. Due to this fortuitousness, Chrysler has come forth with new international production plants as well as an outlook of increasing prosperity and significant market growth that analysts are predicting for Chrysler and the minivan market.

In addition, Chrysler is North America's lowest cost automaker. Through the use of interdisciplinary teams, Chrysler Motor Corporation has been able to lower their debt, obtain higher financial liquidity, and embark on continuous improvements in product development and customer satisfaction.

Therefore, we at Chrysler believe that AutoThai would greatly benefit from Chrysler's leadership and innovation in the minivan segment with a prosperous and favorable partnership.

Thank you,

John D. Rosenberg

Eduardo S. Gonzalez

November 11, 1996


PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS -- CHRYSLER VOYAGER

The automobile under consideration for manufacture and production in Thailand is the Chrysler Voyager. The Voyager is Chrysler's top selling minivan in North America. As a basic overview, the Voyager accommodates 7 people within its safety and comfort engendering frame. In addition, the Voyager is quite fuel efficient and environmentally compatible. The following sections are intended to provide elaborate and detailed descriptions and specifications of the Chrysler Voyager.

Quality, Reliability and Durability

Quality, from a customer perspective, was described by customers in two dimensions -- "always works" and "quality feel". Both dimensions were addressed during the planning, design and development of the new Chrysler Voyager.

"Always works" is the most important requirement identified in the customer research. It is addressed by achieving high reliability and durability. Objectives for reliability and durability were set for all major vehicle systems. Extensive product assurance plans were implemented during the development process to achieve the objectives. Vehicle reliability and durability are evaluated continuously.

On the other hand, quality feeling, which ranked third on the customers list of requirements, is more subjective. It is achieved through functional objectives that collectively provide a perception of quality. Such objectives include seat comfort, touch and feel of switches, quietness and freedom from buzzes, squeaks and rattles.

Value

One attribute of value is features. The following new features help keep the Voyager ahead of its competition in feature availability:

  • Starter override system -- starter will not operate with engine running
  • Load Leveling Suspension -- optional
  • Sixteen-inch wheels and tires
  • Second sliding door
  • Sliding door positive hold open latch
  • Single-Fill Washer Reservoir -- one reservoir for windshield and
  • liftgate windows with five-litre refill capacity
  • Battery saver -- unneeded electrical loads switched off automatically
  • Eight-way power driver seat including power recliner
  • Easy Out Roller Seats~ -- integral rollers to aid seat removal and
  • re-installation
  • Reclining intermediate and rear seats
  • Climate control system with best-in-class performance

    - Dual Zone Temperature Control
    - Mid-Cabin Comfort Control -- air conditioning and heater outlets in rear edge of front doors
    - Overhead outlets for rear air conditioning
    - Electronically operated mode and temperature controls
    - Computer-operated air conditioning evaporator temperature control

    Electrochromic automatic dimming rear view mirror

    Infinity Acoustic 10~ audio systems -- ten amplified speakers with CD and cassette or cassette-only radios

    New features are important but existing features need to be improved to maintain product leadership. The following features are improved over previous models:

    DOHC 16-valve four-cylinder engine
    Engine torque increased (3,3 and 3,8-litre engines)
    Platinum-tipped spark plugs for long life (3,3 and 3,8-litre engines)
    Interactive automatic speed control
    Four-mount engine mounting system

    Refined suspension

    Tighter turning circle ( minus 1 m)

    Dual-action rear drum brakes for low parking brake effort

    Outside liftgate latch handle

    Lowered door and liftgate sills

    Aerodynamic drag coefficient - .0345 cd

    Aerodynamic windshield water control

    Sliding door rear hinge track concealed at the base of the quarter window

    High-gloss mold-in color cowl screen, outside mirror housings, and front door pillar appliqu~s

    Optimized body structure for solid feel and quietness

    Exceptional quietness

    - Powertrain

    - Wind noise

    - Road noise

    - Freedom from buzzes, squeaks and rattles

    Driver and front passenger seat accommodations

    Folding intermediate seat back in addition to folding rear seat back continues

    Driver control location

    Driver and front passenger forward and lateral visibility

    Passenger air bag door -- seamless

    Cup holder versatility -- adjustable size

    Cargo storage area -- largest and most versatile in its class

    Miscellaneous storage -- best-in-class

    Tilt steering column -- number of tilt positions doubled

    Ignition key operation effort and travel

    User-friendly automatic speed control switch operation

    Power vent switches relocated to the driver's door and grouped with front window power switches

    Safety and Security

    Chrysler has been the safety leader among minivan manufacturers. To continue this position, the new Chrysler Voyagers are equipped with even more safety features and improvements to existing safety features. New or improved safety features include:

    Seamless passenger air bag door (patented)

    Four-wheel anti-lock brakes available

    Windshield Wiper De-Icer

    Windshield and liftgate wipers with speed-sensitive delay

    Illuminated secondary controls and switches

    Non-glare interior lighting

    Comfort-Fit Seat Belt System~ for front and second seat outboard

    occupants -- shoulder belt height adjusters, traveling seat belt buckles and super-soft webbing

    Head restraints standard on all seating positions

    Multi-position integrated Reclining Child Safety Seats with one-hand latching harness optional

    Red reflectors on the rear surface of each sliding door and front door

    In addition to safety features, the perception of safety is important. Safety perception is demonstrated in the following ways:

    Command of the road provided by excellent visibility resulting from a low cowl, large windshield and side windows and large outside mirrors

    Stable, predictable handling

    Stiff, strong body structure that feels solid to the driver

    Front-wheel drive -- recognized for its ability to aid stability and control

    All-Wheel Drive for added traction and control -- optional

    New features that increase security for one's person and possessions include:

    "8 kph" bumpers

    "Immobilizer" and central door locks added to Remote Keyless Entry

    System - optional

    Active Restraint Systems

    Unibelt Outboard Restraints

    Unibelt active restraint systems are installed at all outboard seating positions. Shoulder belts for the front and intermediate seats have height adjusters -- the first intermediate seat belt height adjusters for a minivan. They provide belt system wearing comfort for a broad range of occupants from children and small women to large men. Range of adjustment is 100 mm (3.9 in.) at 20 mm (0.8 in.) intervals for both front and second seat systems. Track for the front seat height adjusters is curved to increase head clearance and improve wearer comfort. Shoulder belt anchors for third seat passengers have been lowered based on usage studies that showed the lower position would be more comfortable for a majority of passengers. Except for the driver's belt, the latch plates include a cinching capability to retain child seats.

    Traveling Seat Belt Buckles

    Active front seat restraint system buckles are attached to the seat frame rather than the floor and supported by molded scabbards. This assures that the buckles are easy to find because they always have the same fore-and-aft relation to the cushion, regardless of seat adjustment. This also minimizes possible occupant discomfort associated with adjusting the seat with the belt on.

    Second seat buckles are attached to the seat frame and recessed in the cushion for easy entry and exit of passengers. These buckles face upward, allowing easy, one-hand buckling that parents of small children will especially appreciate.

    Third seat belt buckles are attached to the seat frame through webbing to allow some variation in seating position for wearer comfort. The center-position lap belt is also attached to the seat frame.

    Head Restraints

    Vertically adjustable head restraints with "halo" construction for improved visibility are provided at all seating positions. These head restraints are taller than their North American counterparts as required by European regulations.

    Integrated Reclining Child Safety Seats

    Integrated Child Safety Seats are available with cloth seats only on SE. The new integrated child safety seats have the first multi-position adjustable reclining back in the industry. New molded, contoured back and cushion pads that provide a more natural seating surface for the child are also an industry first. Cushion pads remain removable and washable.

    A new five-point seat belt system for the Child Safety Seats operates easily with one hand. It includes two shoulder straps integrated with a central buckle that latches with one hand. The belts have an inertia-locking retractor system that allows them to be pulled out and draped over the back of the seat before the child is put in place. The buckle assembly is then lifted over the child's head and latched into the of the base of the seat. The retractor system on the belts allows the child some free movement. The retractor effort is calibrated for children's comfort.

    An interlock in the seat reclining mechanism prevents the seat back from folding forward when the child seat is open. All new features were evaluated for acceptance and proper function in several consumer research clinics with parents and their children.

    Passive Restraint Systems

    Driver Air Bag

    The driver's air bag supplemental passive restraint system has a lighter, more compact inflator than previous, contributing to a slimmer steering wheel hub and enhanced cluster visibility. The trim cover has concealed tear seams that provides a neat appearance. The air bag works in frontal barrier impact with an instrument panel knee blocker and the Unibelt active restraint system, which must always be worn, to provide maximum available collision protection for the driver. The air bag inflates at 22 kph (14 mph) or greater frontal barrier impact speed.

    Passenger Air Bag

    The passenger air bag is mounted behind a seamless cover in the face of the instrument panel. The insert-molded plastic and steel air bag "doors" are integrated into the panel structure with no visible seam or hinge. Seamless door construction resists tampering or abuse that might affect air bag operations and reduces the likelihood of air bag theft. The air bag system uses a hybrid inflator and air bag similar in construction to the previous model, but the bag and inflator are smaller and lighter because the bag location is nearer to the passenger. The inflator canister is 25 mm (1 in.) shorter and is made of magnesium for further weight reduction. A subtle SRS logo molded into the instrument panel skin is the only outward evidence of a passenger air bag.

    The passenger air bag works in conjunction with a knee blocker and the Unibelt active restraint system, which must always be worn, to provide maximum available collision protection for the front passenger.

    The air bag inflates at 22 kph (14 mph) or greater frontal barrier impact speed. The knee blocker is also the glove compartment door. Formed solely of plastic, it offers impact performance comparable to previous steel-reinforced doors with less weight.

    Air Bag Electronic Controls

    Driver and passenger air bags are electronically operated by a centrally located electronic module. The electronic module includes operating electronics, a collision detection sensor and system diagnostics.

    The electronic control module includes a single piezo-electric accelerometer to detect a collision. The single sensor enhances reliability and makes diagnosis of malfunctions easier than distributed-sensor systems. The module is mounted on the transverse centerline of the vehicle, concealed by the instrument panel "center stack."

    The module is connected to the multiplex wiring network, allowing access for diagnostic testing through a common connector that is used for most on-board electronic modules.

    Collision Resistant Structures

    Door Beams

    All doors include lightweight reinforcing beams of ultra-high strength seamless steel tube to help protect occupants in side impact collisions.

    Steering Column

    The steering column is designed to provide effective support for the driver air bag and direct bag inflation toward the driver. The column is short to minimize rearward movement due to contact with the dash during a frontal impact. An intermediate shaft that telescopes 76 mm (3 in.) also helps minimize rearward column movement. Column mounting is sturdy to assure consistent air bag positioning during an impact.

    Environmental

    Concern for the environment was built into component and manufacturing decisions for the new Chrysler Voyager. These concerns included raw materials, purchased units, vehicle operation, manufacturing and assembly as well as process wastes.

    The success of this overall effort resulted from building on continuing pollution prevention programs and on adding new technologies and techniques. The following environmentally-sound actions, in both product and process, were made in connection with development of the new

    Chrysler Voyager:

    Vehicle Environmental Features

    Eliminating Hazardous Materials

    Asbestos has been eliminated from brake linings. The underhood light switch is mechanical, eliminating the use of mercury.

    Recycling

    Most door, quarter and liftgate trim panels have removable fabric inserts to facilitate recycling. The instrument panel top cover is made from a combination of post consumer and post-industrial recycled polycarbonate plastic (compact discs, water bottles and computer parts).

    The following parts are unpainted, mold-in-color polypropylene to facilitate recycling in the future:

    lower instrument panel structure

    interior hard trim

    passenger compartment air conditioning unit

    most door, quarter and liftgate trim panels

    Most fascias and body side moldings are made from recyclable TPO (thermoplastic olefin). Recycling codes are printed on many plastic parts to identify the type of material and thereby facilitate recycling in the future. Affected parts include fascias, body side moldings, light units, the coolant recovery and washer fluid bottles, the passenger compartment air conditioning housing, interior hard trim panels, etc.

    Exhaust Emission Control Standards

    European gasoline exhaust emission are significantly more stringent for 1996. They require a 37,5% reduction in combined hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and a 12% reduction in carbon monoxide.

    European diesel emission standards are also more stringent. They require a 28% reduction in combined hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (Nox) emissions, a 63% reduction in carbon monoxide and a 43% reduction in particulates compared to the standards in effect since 1992. The reduction is achieved through use of an electronically controlled fuel injection system.

    Manufacturing Process Environmental Features

    Eliminating Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's)

    De-ionized water replaces volatile solvents for a major portion of the paint system purge process when changing colors, reducing VOC's from this operation substantially. Paint booth-cleaning solvents are reduced by 50%. Color is molded into mirror housings, door handles, body side moldings, interior hard trim, avoiding VOC emissions by eliminating painting operations both at the parts suppliers and at the assembly plant. Water-based sound deadening material in wheel house and underbody replaces solvent borne material. The supplier of energy-absorbing foam for the bumper system uses steam instead of VOC materials as an expansion agent. Many body adhesives use low VOC solvents. New technology for the anti-chip protection process on the Voyager uses an epoxy polyester powder that is completely free of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). The use of solvent-borne anti-chip primers is eliminated. Use of mold-in-color fascias and cladding eliminates two-tone paint, eliminating VOC's from the second paint operation.

    Technology

    Computerized scheduling allows grouping of vehicles to be painted the same color. This blocking minimizes the number of color-change equipment purges. An innovative system of handling paint overspray reduces sludge volume. Through pollution prevention, substitution and source reduction, the plants (in conjunction with their suppliers) have reduced the number of products (adhesives, paints, sealers and lubricants) containing VOC's and hazardous substances.

    Recycling

    Paint line and booth cleaning solvents are collected, remanufactured and reused. Oversprayed powder anti-chip material is recycled. Reusable shipping containers will eliminate 95% of packaging waste (for example, cardboard and plastic) waste at planned production levels.

    Hazardous Materials Reduction

    All paints are lead and chrome free. Hazardous ingredients associated with sealing, sound-deadening, and paint priming operations and those in cleaning solvents have been reduced or eliminated. Top coat paints are formulated to reduce hazardous air-borne pollutants (HAPs) by over 90%. The epoxy polyester powder anti-chip protection is completely free of HAPs.

    Exterior Body

    Body Structure

    Essential to a modern vehicle is a stiff and accurate body structure. The new Chrysler Voyager Unibody structure possesses outstanding torsional stiffness with light weight. The high stiffness contributes to low noise by minimizing vibrations transmitted through the structure. It also adds firmness to the ride and handling feel, contributing to occupants' confidence in the vehicle. High bending stiffness contributes to ride quality by attenuating inputs from the suspension system such as driving over tar strips and other impact bumps. Bending and torsional stiffness also lessen the potential for BSR's (buzzes, squeaks and rattles). Torsional stiffness contributes to a solid feel and crisp handling qualities by allowing the suspension to work without the effects of body deflection.

    High bending stiffness also reduces the vibration of secondary components such as the instrument panel and steering column, because it does not transmit their natural frequencies. Steering column mounting stiffness is best-in-class. With a steering column resonant frequency 14% higher than the prior model, steering wheel response to road inputs and engine idle vibrations is minimized.

    The body structure is optimized to provide the level of stiffness required for collision resistance, ride, handling and overall quality while maintaining a best-in-class weight-to-volume characteristic. With the largest interior volume in the minivan market, the long wheelbase body structure weighs less than some smaller competitors. The short wheelbase body has similar weight to volume characteristics. Diagonal stiffness of the liftgate opening is 3 times greater than that of the prior body. This assures an accurate, consistent liftgate fit and minimizes noise-producing conditions. To achieve the liftgate opening stiffness required an intense engineering effort.

    Exterior Body Panel Accuracy

    The new Chrysler Voyager has a "one millimeter" body, meaning that all measured characteristics are maintained within one millimeter of the designed position. An accurate body structure contributes to the customer perception of good workmanship by providing flush body panels with tight and uniform gaps and by making trim and other mating parts fit well. Furthermore, it means that doors fit properly, reducing potential for wind noise and water leaks. Accuracy is obtained through early establishment and acceptance of dimensional requirements from design engineering through manufacturing feasibility to the production plant.

    Glass

    Windshield Wiper De-Icer

    A Windshield Wiper De-Icer is available to minimize ice build-up at the base of the windshield and on the wiper blades during wintertime operation. The de-icer is a grid like the rear window defroster but it covers only a small area of the glass at the base of the wiper pattern which is also where the wipers park. The system operates with the electric rear window defroster and/or with the windshield defroster.

    Solar Control Glass

    With cab forward design comes a windshield that is 32% larger than that on the previous Voyager. Side windows are also larger. New solar control glass is standard to help keep passengers comfortable and to reduce damage to organic materials from solar radiation. It lowers interior surface temperature under maximum sunlight by 4~ C (7~F). These reductions in interior heating mean that the time to reach an acceptable comfort level is reduced by 2,5 minutes and interior glare is lessened compared to conventional tinted glass.

    Body-Mounted Glass

    The windshield and liftgate window are flush with the surrounding body and trimmed with simple push-on moldings of extruded black PVC plastic for a neat appearance. They are bonded and sealed to the body with a urethane adhesive.

    Bumpers & Fascias

    Front and rear bumper and fascia systems provide protection for any part of the body not directly in the load path and for safety-related components during barrier and corner impacts up to 8 km/hr. These systems exceeds bumper performance requirements in all markets and prevents damage in bumper performance tests. All fascias are molded of abrasion-resistant TPO (thermoplastic olefin).

    The front bumper system includes molded high-density polypropylene-bead foam energy-absorbing material, which conforms to both the interior shape of the fascia and the bumper beam. It cushions low-speed impacts and restores to near its original shape to help maintain fascia appearance. Box-section front bumper beams of roll-formed ultra-high strength steel include welded brackets that bolt to the body structure.

    Rear bumper beams are formed by welding two "hat" section stampings of high strength steel. The beams bolt to extensions of the underbody structural rails. A molded plastic bracket attached to the beam supports to fascia.

    Roof Luggage Rack

    An all-new roof luggage rack is standard on LE and LX models. Sturdy aluminum side rails are mounted on pedestals, affording additional tie down locations. A series of holes pierced in the rails receive movable locking pins on the cross bar stanchions to hold the cross bars in place. Cross bar adjustment is much easier than with the previous rack because the push-button locking pin mechanism has a detent in the free position as well as the latched position. The stanchions at both ends of each cross bar include dual cargo tie-down loops. The stanchions also have raised guards that provide lateral restraint for lumber, ladders, or other items resting on the cross bars. The cross bars and stanchions are designed to support loads up to the capacity of the rack -- 68 kg (150 lbs.) -- whereas the former rack was designed to hold items resting on the roof only. Air foil cross bars assure freedom from wind noise.

    Corrosion Protection and Paint

    Corrosion Protection

    Every part of the body structure exposed to the exterior environment, including the roof, is coated with zinc on both sides by galvanizing or galvannealing for life-of-the-vehicle corrosion protection. The body assembly is thoroughly cleaned by immersion and then coated with zinc-phosphate crystals, also through immersion, to improve primer adherence. Primer is applied using an electro-coat or E-coat process in which the body is electrically charged while fully immersed in a tank containing a water-based epoxy primer solution. The electric charge causes a uniform deposit of primer (without sags or runs) to adhere to the entire body, including all cavities and crevices. The body design incorporates openings to assure 100 percent E-coat coverage. Chrysler uses a "high-build" E-coat material that produces a film 20% to 50% thicker than competition. Besides providing an excellent base for adhesion of the finish topcoat paint, the E-coat is also resistant to corrosion. If the topcoat and E-coat are chipped, the E- coat resists the spread of corrosion from the edges of the chip.

    The new Voyager has the only full-coverage molded plastic front wheelhouse liners in the industry. They prevent corrosive materials from reaching crevices in the forward body structure and fenders and eliminate the possibility of stone chip damage in this area.

    Molded plastic stone chip protectors are installed on the trailing edges of the front wheel openings. They extend below the wheel openings to protect both the fenders and sills against damage from debris picked up by the front tires. The protectors are painted body color for a neat, unobtrusive appearance. The plastic is more resilient than steel to effectively resist paint chipping.

    Anti-Chip Coating

    The new Voyager is the first European built vehicle to receive a full-body anti-chip coating for superior protection against stone damage. A specially formulated epoxy polyester powder is applied to the entire exterior body surface and melts in the primer oven to form a entire exterior body surface and melts in the primer oven to form a continuous film. A second coat is applied to the sill areas for added chip resistance. In addition to chip protection, this primer increases the overall durability of the paint in the presence of ultra-violet radiation.

    Appearance Coats

    Chrysler Voyager is available in nine colors: Dark Rosewood, Flame Red, Light Iris, Forest Green, Light Silver Fern, Medium Blue, Dark Iris, Stone White, and Black.

    Environmentally friendly waterborne base (color) coat paints are used exclusively. This paint also forms a glossier finish than solvent-based materials. Enhanced patina and added brilliance of metallic colors are also noticeable compared to solvent-based paint.

    Body Systems

    Door Systems

    Sliding Doors

    A second sliding door, on the driver's side is standard on all models.

    It operates exactly like the passenger's side door.

    All new hinging and latching mechanisms provide easier, more convenient sliding door operation. On a level surface each sliding door will close by itself from the fully open position. Inclined tracks allow gravity to facilitate door closing. Ball bearing rollers provide low friction. The rollers are plastic coated for smooth operation. The sliding door design minimizes cantilever loads on the hinges for low effort and continued smooth operation.

    With low friction and gravity-induced movement, inadvertent closing of a sliding door is avoided by including a positive hold-open sliding door latch. Customers identified this as a needed feature even without the effort-reducing refinements. The hold open latch engages automatically when the door reaches the fully open position. The hold-open latch is released from inside or outside the vehicle by the same action as opening the door.

    Sliding doors have a Child Guard feature as standard equipment. With the Child Guard lock feature activated, the button remains active to release the hold-open latch but will not operate the main latch to open the door.

    The upper hinge tracks are outside the passenger compartment, increasing head clearance for entry and exit compared to the previous model. This track mounting system provides added head clearance for the front passenger, allowing full rearward travel for the seat that was not available on previous models.

    The second sliding door includes a fuel-filler door interlock. The interlock prevents the sliding door from opening if the fuel door is open. This avoids the possibility of damage to either.

    Sliding door windows are mounted flush with the adjacent body panels and fixed for security and quietness. The sliding door includes a key cylinder. Red reflectors on the rear face of each sliding door provide a nighttime warning that the door is open to overtaking drivers.

    Front Doors

    Front doors have roll-formed window frames rather than more common full stamped construction. This more compact construction allows a larger door opening for easier entry and exit. The rolled section, which forms a channel for the glass to slide in, is made from stock that is three times thicker than a full stamped door would be for stiffness. The rolled section is cut and welded at the corners, then welded to the conventionally stamped lower door.

    Outside Door Handles

    Front and sliding doors are operated from outside by low-profile pull handles. This type of handle was selected on the basis of consumer research. The molded handle size and shape are optimized for 95% of all customers. The back of each handle has a smooth, rounded surface for a comfortable grip. A molded escutcheon behind each handle provides ample clearance for a gloved hand and includes the key cylinder.

    Liftgate

    Liftgate geometry and new temperature-compensated gas props assure smooth, easy operation under all ambient temperature conditions. Compared to the prior model, closing effort is 30% lower and opening effort is 10% lower. The temperature-compensated gas props have internal valves that open at high ambient temperatures to prevent the build-up of gas pressure that makes closing effort excessive in conventional gas props. By closing at low temperatures, the valves assure sufficient pressure is always available to hold the liftgate open.

    An easily accessible inside handle aids in closing the liftgate. The handle is fitted into a recess in the trim panel so that the handle will not reduce cargo volume. Fully open position of the liftgate is above the heads of most of the population but within reach of all but 5%.

    The liftgate has an outside handle to release the latch and a key cylinder for unlocking. Pulling up on the paddle-type handle releases the latch and raises the liftgate with the same motion. The lock also may be operated with a power lock switch or with the remote keyless entry transmitter.

    A two-stage latch on the liftgate is similar to that used on front doors. The latch grips a high-strength wedge-shaped striker that stabilizes the liftgate in the opening to minimize the potential for BSR's.

    Quarter and Side Windows

    Vented rear quarter windows are standard on all models. Power operation is standard on LE and LX models. The power mechanism uses a motor mounted in the pillar and a simple direct linkage. The manual vent windows have a T-handle that is easy to grip and has a "friendly" surface to make operation easy. Quarter and side windows have a completely smooth outer surface that is flush with the adjacent body panels. Hinges at the front and the latch at the rear are bonded to the inner surface of the glass.

    Wipers and Washers

    Windshield Wipers

    Opposed wiper blades operated by computer-designed four-pivot linkage clear the large windshield from pillar to pillar. The opposed wiping action clears a larger percentage of a larger windshield than the previous system did. The wiped area is larger than that required by any regulation. To do this, wiper blades are 600 mm (24 in.) long -- among the longest in the industry. The wiper blades have a low profile and open-back frames that minimize aerodynamic lift to maintain wiping action at high speeds.

    The entire windshield wiper system is mounted in a detachable molded composite tray beneath the cowl screen. The modular assembly enhances wiper action by keeping system components aligned for smooth, clean wiping action and accurate control of the wiper pattern. Cab-forward architecture, while maximizing interior room, placed the passenger compartment air intake above the engine. This moved the wiper system further forward and required that the wiper module be removable for underhood service.

    Liftgate Wiper

    A 172~ swept angle clears the largest liftgate wipe pattern in the industry. The rear wiper may be operated either at a constant speed or intermittently. Delay time during intermittent operation is inversely proportional to vehicle speed.

    Vehicle Speed-Sensitive Delay Intermittent Wipe

    Vehicle speed sensitive delay intermittent operation is standard for both windshield and liftgate wiper systems. The delay interval varies from 0,5 to 18 seconds for front wipers. This doubles when vehicle speed is below approximately 16 kph (10 mph) because wiping is less needed then. For the liftgate wiper the delay is nominally 7 seconds but diminishes in proportion to vehicle speed. At 97 kph (60 mph) the delay is reduced to 4,9 seconds.

    Body Electrical and Electronic Systems

    Body Controller

    Body Control Modules (BCM) that operate a variety of electrical/electronic features are standard on all models. They provide the following new functions:

    1. A unique Battery Saver feature that automatically turns off electrical loads if this is not done manually after a reasonable time. These loads could discharge the battery and prevent starting if allowed to continue with the engine off. Studies showed that, of the electrical loads customers can or might leave on, the primary cause of battery discharge is leaving lights on. Therefore, the BCM will turn off any exterior lights left on for 3 minutes. It will also extinguish all interior lights after 15 minutes whether they remain on as the result of having a door ajar or because the light was manually switched on. The customer can override the Battery Saver by leaving the key in the ignition switch with the ignition "off". The automatic exterior light shut-off does not affect the headlight time delay feature, which leaves the lights on for only 1 minute.

    2. A warning chime for conditions that did not have chimes on prior models:

    exterior lights are on when the key is removed from the ignition switch

    with the driver's door open or ajar

    turn signals left on for more than 1,6 kilometers (1 mile)

    dome lamp on when exiting the vehicle

    low oil pressure

    engine temperature critical -- higher than that required to illuminate

    the cluster warning lamp or rising rapidly to that level warning lamp

    announcement -- conditions that turn on a warning lamp but do not have a continuous chime function are preceded by a single chime. The warning chime has two repetition rates: 50 chimes per minute for reminders and 180 chimes per minute for serious conditions requiring immediate attention. The reminder (low rate) chime sounds to remind the driver that turn signals have been left on for more than 1,6 kilometers (1 mile). Serious conditions that trigger the high-rate chime include: exterior lights or dome lamp left on or key left in ignition when exiting the vehicle, low engine oil pressure and engine temperature critical.

    3. Logic for controlling interior lamps. When the dome lamp switch is in the "on" position, the front overhead reading lamps do not come on to avoid interfering with the driver's visibility. On vehicles with remote keyless entry, interior lamps will not come on when the remote keyless entry transmitter UNLOCK button is pressed, if the dome lamp switch is in the "defeat" position. Control of the high engine temperature indicator lamp.

    4. Customer programming for the automatic power door locks. On vehicles with power door locks, the automatic feature will be enabled when shipped from the factory. Instructions for enabling or disabling the feature by a simple sequence of ignition switch and power lock switch actions is provided in the Owner's Manual.

    Personalized Remote Entry System

    The Personalized Remote Entry System allows two drivers to pre-program their personal power seat and power mirror positions for instantaneous recall. The system is operated by individually programmed remote keyless entry transmitters and by switches on the driver's door trim panel. A stand-alone electronic control module for the system is located under the driver's seat.

    Computer Systems Network

    A multiplex wiring network delivers operating signals to a variety of electrical and electronic systems. The first automotive company to use multiplexing, Chrysler remains the leader in the minivan segment for applying this technology to meeting the customer's requirements for "intelligent" electronic features at reasonable cost and complexity. The multiplex wiring network provides increased reliability through a reduction in the number of circuits and circuit connections.

    Access to the network is gained through the patented C2D (Chrysler's Collision Detection) circuitry incorporated in every module connected to the network. Since only one module at a time can transmit data to the network, access of each is prioritized -- high priority data has immediate access, low priority data must wait until the line is clear of higher priority transmissions. Each module is assigned a message identification code or codes based on priority. When data is available for transmission, the module sends or blocks it depending on its priority relative to other data being transmitted.

    Electrical Power Outlets

    A conventional cigar lighter, located to the left of the instrument panel cup holder module, is standard on all models. A second outlet is found in the rear corner of the cargo area of LE and LX models -- left side with long wheelbase bodies and right side with the short wheelbase.

    Positive Temperature Coefficient Devices

    Positive temperature coefficient devices (PTC's) operate as automatic resetting circuit breakers. On the new Voyager they are used for the first time in the automotive industry for wiring protection. They permit the uses of smaller, lighter weight wires by preventing electrical distribution system overloading not occasioned by failure. Circuits involved include power door locks, power windows where a circuit breaker is also eliminated, engine compartment circuits that were previously fused and the windshield washer pumps. In several years of use as motor protection devices, they have demonstrated exceptional reliability. Each PTC consists of two metal plates separated by a high-temperature cross-link polymer that encapsulates a matrix of carbon black particles. The carbon black particles conduct electricity with very low resistance under normal conditions. When a high current is applied, the polymer expands, separating the particles. This greatly increases the resistance which has an effect simi lar to tripping a circuit breaker -- reducing current to less than 1/2 A. Each PTC is calibrated to "trip" at a specified current level. When voltage is removed, the polymer cools in about 15 seconds and the PTC is again ready to transmit power.

    Body Interior Seating

    Rear Bench Seats

    Rear bench seats may be turned to face rearward and latched in place for customer convenience. The seat latch strikers on the floor are symmetrical on Voyager to allow this, whereas the strikers are asymmetrical on North American models to prevent the seats from being reversed. The three-passenger seat may be faced rearward in the intermediate and limousine positions as well as the standard position. The Quad Command seats may be reversed on opposite sides of the vehicle from their forward-facing positions. The reversed seating positions are for non-driving situations as the Unibelt restraint system is unusable in this position.

    Easy-to-use release buttons facilitate head restraint removal. This allows the seat backs to fold in cases where the mounted head restraints would strike the seat ahead.

    Easy Out Roller Seats are as easy to remove, install or reposition as the name suggests. Each seat is latched to floor-mounted strikers. When the seat is unlatched, eight rollers lift each seat so that it can be rolled fore and aft. Molded tracks of high-crystalline polypropylene, attached to the floor, guide the rollers and reduce resistance to rolling. The tracks have locator depressions for the rollers at each latch position for convenient installation or relocation. The rollers are tough, durable Nylon for long life. An ergonomic lever at the back of each seat riser releases the floor latches and raises the seat on its rollers in a single motion. Reversing the process retracts the rollers and locks the seat in place. To assure that the seat will be properly latched, a red indicator projects out of each handle until latching is complete. To facilitate rear seat removal, outboard Unibelt restraints are body mounted and retract away from the seats when not in use. Also for this reason, rear seat belt buckles and the center lap belt on the rear seat are attached to the seat frame rather than the floor.

    With seven passenger seating, the rear seat retains the three-position fore-and-aft adjustment with 152 mm (6 in.) of travel and the folding back feature. The adjuster mechanism has release handles in front and back for convenient operation by seat occupants or when stowing cargo behind the seat. The handles are located below the cushion to the right of center. Intermediate and rear seat backs have carpeted rear surfaces for protection when carrying cargo on them when they are folded.

    The intermediate seat of seven passenger models can be removed and the rear seat moved forward to provide five passenger seating. There is an additional set of seat mounting strikers recessed in the floor rearward of the normal intermediate seat position -- called the limousine position -- that allows the rear seat to be repositioned for more legroom than the standard position provides. Installing the rear seat, with its three-position adjuster, in either the normal intermediate or limousine position theoretically provides six different "intermediate" seating positions. The intermediate seat may also be moved to the limousine position on short-wheelbase bodies when there are no rear seat passengers.

    Quad Command Individual Intermediate Seats

    Removable Quad Command individual seats in the intermediate seat location are optional. The quad seat backs recline 66~ in 3~ increments and also fold flat for cargo storage versatility. A lever with a molded loop-type handle at the right side of each seat operates the recliner. When folded, the molded seat back panels can serve as tray tables for rear seat passengers. These back panels each include two cup holder depressions.

    The right seat assembly tilts forward for access to the rear seat via a gas prop-assisted mechanism that is easier to operate than the prior mechanism. Floor tracks and strikers are the same with Quad Command seats as with a bench-type intermediate seat, allowing maximum seating position flexibility for the rear seat.

    Each quad seat latches to the floor using two strikers which are the same as used for the roller seats. The latching lever is at the front of each seat to aid seat removal through the side door. The quad seats may be placed in the limousine position on short-wheelbase bodies, if desired.

    The base of each quad seat is cast magnesium, the lightest structural material commonly used in automotive applications. This reduces weight below 22,6 kg (50 lb.), 1,4 kg (3 lb.) lighter than the previous Quad Command seats, making seat removal a one person job.

    Inboard, folding armrests are included on driver and front passenger seats for occupant comfort without restriction to entry or exit. Quad Command intermediate seats include folding left and right armrests. The intermediate seat in all seven passenger configurations have a folding armrest on the left and right side.

    Storage

    The new Voyager has best-in-class storage capacity. This means the largest gross storage volume of any minivan in the long wheelbase body and more volume than most of the competition in the short wheelbase body. It also means more loading versatility: the ability to store more "real world" objects -- lumber, skis, bicycles, soft bags, duffel bags, suitcases, golf clubs, large and small picnic coolers, etc.; the most versatile cup holders and more closed storage capacity than any other minivan. A survey of over 400 customers focused entirely on what objects customers carried in their Voyagers. All the frequently mentioned items can be accommodated. For instance, seventeen locations can hold a container of facial tissue.

    Underseat Storage Drawer

    A 10,4-litre storage drawer under the passenger seat is standard. The drawer includes a lock and a low-effort mechanical latch.

    Cup Holders

    Instrument Panel Cup Holders - Based on QFD analysis of consumer research data, cup holders are given third priority in the instrument panel center stack, just below the radio and the climate controls, and well within reach. Other customer requirements for the cup holders were adjustability to various size containers, stability to prevent spills and quietness. On vehicles equipped with an automatic transaxle the cup holders are concealed in a drawer when not in use. As the drawer is opened, movable arms swing out to create two openings each deep enough and large enough for the largest available drink containers including cups with handles. Each arm can swing in on a three-position ratchet to grip smaller containers. When pushed inward past the smallest position the ratchet releases and the arms swing out again to the largest position.

    On vehicles equipped with manual transaxle, the cup holder module is replaced by a sliding tray that includes the same coin holder as the automatic transaxle version and the standard ash receiver. The coin holder accommodates most coins. Rearward travel of the tray is restricted to avoid interference with the manual transaxle shifter.

    Rear Cup Holders - Dual cup holders in the quarter trim panels adjacent to the rear seat positions accommodate the same range of containers as the instrument panel cup holders. With the second sliding door, dual underseat cup holders are provided for intermediate seat passengers. The underseat cup holder unit is shallow to minimize interference with the ability to store long objects under the seat. The cup holder also has a lower cover to protect it from objects under the seat. With a bench seat, the cup holder slides out from under the center of the seat. With Quad Command seats, the cup holder unit is stored in the left seat riser and slides out toward the center of the vehicle. These underseat cup holders have the same features as the instrument panel cup holders.

    Rear Compartment Storage Bins

    Storage bins under each quarter trim panel armrest are individually and collectively the largest available in any minivan. Total storage bin capacity is increased from 7,7 L (470 cu. in.) to 21,3 L (1300 cu. in.) compared to prior models. Each bin has a hinged, latching cover. The bottom of each bin is a tray with a raised lip to retain liquids that might be spilled inside.

    Cargo Area Storage

    Intermediate seat backs and Quad Command seat backs fold flat to permit storage on top. This is in addition to the folding rear seat which continues.

    In-line seat stanchions allow long objects such as lumber or skis to be stowed on the floor without moving the seats. The number of sets of skis that will fit under the seats exceeds the passenger capacity.

    The liftgate and liftgate trim panel are concave to enhance cargo volume. To help take the guesswork out of loading the cargo area to full capacity, the liftgate sill plate has a raised line and adjacent "Load to this line" nomenclature molded in. The line indicates how far rearward cargo can be placed without interfering with liftgate closing. The liftgate striker is recessed into the sill plate to facilitate loading without damaging or interfering with cargo stowage.

    Cargo loading aft of the rear seat is facilitated by adding a recliner position that is slightly more upright than the design condition. The adjustable rear seat, a carryover feature, also aids cargo loading aft of the rear seat.

    Large picnic coolers can be stored behind the rear seat or beside the intermediate seat on all models. The intermediate seat area is even wider than the ample space provided by prior models due to increased overall width and a thinner sliding door. There is also increased width for a cooler between the front seats because of the wider pass-through area.

    Additional Storage

    The following additional storage features are available:

    All interiors include a storage pocket on the back of the front passenger seat.

    Between the instrument panel cup holders is a removable ash receiver.

    Coin holder slots in the instrument panel cup holder tray has a rubber a pad that grips the coins to prevent rattles.

    Depending on equipment level, the instrument panel center section has an open lower bin or a hinged, storage bin with cassette or CD storage slots.

    The instrument panel center section has an open cubby box between the cup holder drawer and the lower storage bin.

    Right of the center stack in the lower section of the panel is a bin-type glove compartment with an easy-to-use pull-up latch. The bin-style construction and a check strap prevent the contents from spilling.

    Front door map pockets included on LE and LX are larger than those offered previously.

    Left side trim panels have molded depressions, approximately juice-box size, forward of the armrest that can hold miscellaneous small items. On the second sliding door, an ash receiver is installed in the door trim panel bolster at the belt line.

    Primary Controls

    Steering Wheel and Column

    The three-spoke steering wheel has a sculptured appearance. Its location, rim section, overall shape and spoke location are the result of customer surveys and ergonomic studies regarding reach, instrument cluster visibility and clearance to the panel.

    The combination of air bag and steering wheel is 1,6 kg ( 3.6 lb) lighter than the prior assembly. This contributes to a slim steering wheel hub for enhanced instrument cluster visibility, to a solid, steady wheel position and to easy tilt column operation.

    The tilt column has 10 positions at 2.25~ angular increments for outstanding adjustability. The instrument panel cross beam provides a rigid mounting surface. A rigid structure isolation pad between the column and the cross beam contributes to stability. A tuned-mass damper, installed on the steering wheel hub, helps keep the wheel steady at idle.

    Steering Wheel Mounted Controls

    Automatic Speed Control Switches - Push-button operated speed control switches in the steering wheel spokes provide best-in-class functionality. They are easy to operate with both hands on the wheel and eyes on the road.

    The switch layout is more ergonomic than on previous Chrysler vehicles. ON-OFF and SET buttons on the left spoke initiate and terminate speed control (cruise control) action. The ON-OFF button includes a green LED "on" indicator with two-stage light intensity -- high for daytime, low for night -- to avoid glare. RESUME-ACCEL, CANCEL and DECEL buttons on the right permit one hand control of the system while in motion. In logical fashion, the RESUME-ACCEL button is highest on the spoke and DECEL, lowest. The CANCEL button is raised for easy identification by touch. All switches require minimal travel and operate by momentary contact. All except the raised cancel button are flush with the surrounding bezel for a neat appearance.

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning System

    The heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system is absolutely world class in every aspect of performance. The air conditioning system has enough capacity to cool a 140 square meter (1500 square feet) house. It reduces the time required for customers to become comfortable by 20% compared to the previous system. The heater provides a comfortable interior 25% faster. Under the hottest conditions encountered, customers will begin to feel comfortable in 10 minutes and will be "fully comfortable" in 20 minutes whether stuck in traffic or traveling at highway speeds. This results, in part, from 30% more air flow than the previous system as well as additional ducting and a sophisticated electronic refrigerant control system. The system is also quieter than that in any other minivan. System performance is enhanced by standard solar control glass and by air exhausters.

    Front Compartment Climate Control System

    Front Compartment Controls - Climate controls are ergonomically designed and located in the center stack for easy access. Mode (air outlet selection) and blower speed controls are rotary as preferred by consumers. Temperature is modulated with a lever. This actuation was preferred in customer surveys and facilitates the new Dual Zone Temperature Control feature -- individual side-to-side control of air outlet temperature using separate levers. The driver can easily slide both levers simultaneously to the desired setting when there is no one else in the vehicle. To satisfy European customer requirements, temperature control levers have larger knobs with larger corner radii than North American models.

    Mode and temperature are actuated by the climate control computer for accuracy and consistent effort. Operation of the knobs is especially smooth and easy because they control variable electrical resistors instead of the more common cables.

    The blower has five separates speeds and "off" -- one more than before. When the fan is off, the climate control computer closes the recirculation door to prevent outside air from entering the passenger compartment.

    With air conditioning and heater, interior air may be recirculated to speed up heating or cooling in all modes except defrost and mix by pressing the "recirculate" button on the control panel. To reduce humidity for rapid defogging, the air conditioning compressor, where included, runs automatically in modes from "mix" to full defrost when outside temperatures are above freezing. Air conditioning is available in any mode by pressing the "snowflake" button. Both the recirculate and air conditioning button graphics are backlit and have LED indicators to show when these functions are in operation.

    The control panel for heater-only vehicles includes a "recirculate" button, which helps prevent the entry of outside air when desired to avoid exhaust fumes or for enhanced occupant comfort during engine warm up.

    Dual Zone Temperature Control - Dual Zone Temperature Control allows completely independent side-to-side control of the incoming air temperature. It is operated by separate temperature levers on the control panel labeled "driver" and "passenger". The full range of temperature that the system can produce in any mode is available on either side of the vehicle. Mode and fan speeds remain common.

    Mid-Cabin Comfort Control - Ducts in the front door trim panels with rearward facing outlets provide Mid-Cabin Comfort Control by delivering approximately 1/8 of the total system airflow to intermediate seat passengers. Air is transferred from the front unit to these outlets in all modes. Mid-Cabin Comfort Control is standard on all equipment levels.

    Rear Compartment Climate Control System

    Rear Compartment Controls - Available rear compartment heating and air conditioning enhances the comfort of intermediate and rear seat passengers. It is available on long wheelbase models only and not available with the 2,5L turbo diesel engine. Operation of the rear heater/air conditioner unit is controlled primarily by a switch on the front climate control panel and secondarily by a blower speed switch located on the left roof rail within easy reach of adult intermediate seat occupants but out of reach of small children. Operation of the air conditioning compressor for cooling is selected by pressing the air conditioning button on the front control panel.

    Rear Outlets - In air conditioning mode, four overhead outlets on the roof rails distribute cooled air to all rear occupants. Upper outlets are preferred for directing cool air to the occupant's upper body -- an approach similar to residential or office air conditioning systems.

    In heat mode, air flows to the intermediate and rear seat areas from three outlets in the right quarter panel near the floor. Heated air is delivered to these outlets across the top of the right rear wheelhouse through a duct concealed by the quarter trim panel.

    Refrigeration System

    To provide fastest possible cooling during maximum demand and to maintain consistent outlet air temperature, sophisticated control logic in the climate control computer regulates evaporator temperature. The evaporator temperature regulation system uses more input signals and adaptive computer logic to surpass the performance of previously known control systems. Because the computer logic identifies maximum cooling demand from operation of the recirculation button along with a minimum temperature setting, it does not have to compensate for minimum demand conditions that compromise performance as other less flexible systems do. Therefore it keeps the evaporator temperature as near as possible to the ideal temperature for maximum cooling and dehumidification (just above freezing) more accurately than any other system. It uses a running average of evaporator minimum temperatures during successive compressor cycles. (The switching point is not the minimum temperature, because the evaporator continues to cool momen tarily after the compressor stops.) This average reading is used to bias the switching point to maintain a stable minimum regardless of operating conditions. This temperature is measured by a thermistor (temperature-variable resistor) inserted between evaporator fins as on previous systems. This same system maintains outlet air temperature within 3~C (5~F) at any temperature setting.

    **The air conditioning compressor used with the 2,5-litre turbo diesel engine is driven by the power steering pump.

    **The refrigeration system uses CFC-free R-134a refrigerant.

    Secondary Controls

    Inside Rearview Mirror

    A manually operated prismatic day-night inside rearview mirror is standard on SE and LE models. LX models are equipped with an electrochromic automatic dimming rear view mirror. This mirror helps ease nighttime driving strain by reducing glare. It dims to the level needed while providing rearward visibility appropriate to operating conditions. It has true gray-scale light absorption, becoming progressively darker as the intensity of incoming light increases and returning automatically to normal reflectance when intensity decreases. The mirror consists of a thin layer of electrochromic gel between two pieces of glass. The amount of reflected light is reduced by darkening the gel. The intensity of incoming light is measured by a photocell and electronic circuitry in the mirror. A variable electrical current passing through the gel darkens it in proportion to the light intensity. To aid visibility when backing up at night, the mirror automatically switches to full reflectance when the transmission is shifted to Reverse.

    Door-Mounted Controls

    Power Window Switches - Power front window and quarter vent window switches are grouped on the driver's door as power window switches would be on a car. The switches are high and forward for ease of visibility and within easy reach. The driver's window has a "one-touch down" feature that is being used for the first time on a Chrysler minivan. The switches are operated by paddles that are arranged to correlate with window operation: vertical for front doors, horizontal for vent windows. There is also a power window switch on the front passenger's door. Switch paddles are illuminated for nighttime operation convenience and safety. Light intensity is adjusted by using the interior lighting control on the instrument panel. The power window switches are designed for low effort and a positive feeling.

    Overhead Console

    The overhead console, standard with LE and LX models, is more car-like than its predecessor. It has softened lines and a color-keyed trim bezel that helps integrate it with the headliner. It includes a new trip computer reset switch. Buttons and graphics are larger for easier operation and legibility. Switch nomenclature is printed on the faces of the buttons and illuminated from the back for nighttime convenience. The sunglasses holder and garage door opener compartments are larger than before. They will hold virtually any of those items and more than any competitive overhead console. The garage door opener compartment includes a strip of Velcro~ tape that secures the opener in place to prevent rattles.

    The console has a variable intensity blue-green vacuum fluorescent display. Choice of metric or customary units for the display is obtained by pressing a button. Overhead console functions include:

    Eight-point compass

    Outside ambient temperature

    Trip odometer

    Trip elapsed time

    Instantaneous fuel economy

    Trip average fuel economy

    Fuel tank range (distance to empty)

    The trip computer in Voyager's overhead console with the 2,5-litre turbocharged diesel engine does not provide fuel economy or fuel range information.

    Engine Systems

    General Information on 3,3L and 3,8L Engines

    The 3,3-litre V6 engine is again offered with the same basic quietness, reliability and durability that it has had in previous years. New for 1996 is the 3,8-litre V6 engine, it is standard on Chrysler's all-wheel-drive system, which is optional on the LE and LX models. This engine is also devoted to smooth and silent operation.

    Changes required to adapt the engine to the new Voyager engine compartment include a revised throttle body location, a new right (rearward in the vehicle) exhaust manifold and a new cross-over pipe.

    Performance and Fuel Economy

    For improved performance of the 3,3-Litre OHV SMPI V-6 engine, torque has increased between 2400 and 4800 rpm. The broad torque curve provides maximum customer perception of performance and also contributes to good fuel economy. Changes for better torque and fuel economy include the following items:

    Re-tuned intake manifold with longer -- 406 mm (16 in.) -- primary runners to increase torque

    Tuned, low-restriction induction system

    Reduced exhaust system back pressure

    Coated pistons to reduce friction

    Calibration of the ignition and fuel injection systems for mid-range torque and fuel economy

    Addition of a knock sensor to the ignition system, allowing maximum spark advance under all conditions for high fuel economy, brisk response and high power while protecting against engine damaging knock

    Reduced idle speed for greater fuel economy

    Ratings of the 3,3 and 3,8-liter engines are as follows:

    Engine --

    3,3 L

    Power = 116 kW (156 bhp) @ 4700 rpm

    Torque = 275 N*m (203 lb-ft) @ 3250 rpm

    3,8 L

    Power = 122 kW (164 bhp) @ 4200 rpm

    Torque = 307 N*m (226 lb-ft) @ 3150 rpm

    Quality and Reliability

    Components and sub-systems throughout the engine have been upgraded to assure operation for 10 years or 160.000 km (100,000 miles) without major service. Specifically, valves, piston rings and bearings are made from premium materials. Platinum-tipped spark plugs are standard on 3,3 and 3,8-litre engines. They last 160.000 km (100,000 miles) under normal driving conditions.

    General Information 2,4-Litre DOHC SMPI I-4 Engine

    Compared to the 2,5-litre four-cylinder engine used previously, the new engine has far more power and torque. While substantially increasing acceleration capability, the 2,4-litre engine maintains the fuel economy of its predecessor. Because of increased performance without loss of fuel economy, the 2,4-litre engine is expected to find greater market acceptance than its predecessor. Performance features include a 16-valve double overhead camshaft cylinder head, a tuned aluminum intake manifold and a tuned, low restriction air induction system. A high compression ratio, (9,4:1), also contributes to the outstanding power output.

    The 2,4-litre engine is also substantially quieter than its predecessor.

    The 2,4-litre engine is available with five-speed manual transaxle with overdrive.

    Performance and Fuel Economy

    The 2,4-litre engine has a broad, flat torque curve with 90% of peak torque available between 2000 and 5000 rpm. The engine reaches peak power at a relatively low speed for a DOHC engine of 4000 rpm. The large "breathing" capacity of the DOHC head has been directed toward achieving high torque and fuel economy through camshaft design and intake manifold tuning. High torque for hauling heavy loads and good fuel economy, rather than peak performance, are the engine attributes that minivan buyers seek. Preliminary ratings are as follows:

    Power = 111 kW (149 bhp) @ 5250 rpm

    Torque = 229 N*m (169 lb-ft) @ 3900 rpm

    Valve Train

    Dual overhead camshafts actuate four valves per cylinder. Valve diameters are 34,8 mm (1.37 in.) intake and 30,5 mm (1.20 in.) exhaust. All valves have 6 mm (0.25 in.) chrome plated stems. Valves have a 48-degree included angle. The exhaust valves are on the right (rearward) side of the head. Each valve is operated by an end-pivot rocker arm that has a 17 mm (0.67 in.) roller cam follower to reduce low speed friction and cam wear. Rockers pivot on inboard-mounted, fixed hydraulic lash adjusters. Single valve springs provide control of valve actuation to 6200 rpm.

    Camshafts of post-hardened nodular cast iron provide a 236 degree intake duration and a 240 degree exhaust duration. The intake cam centerline is 113 degrees ATDC, the exhaust is 110 degrees BTDC, with 15 degrees of overlap. Intake valve lift is 8,25 mm (0.33 in.) and exhaust valve lift is 6,5 mm (0.26 in.).

    A state-of-the art cog belt drives the camshafts. The belt system is designed to last the life of the vehicle without adjustment or replacement. High belt loads usually associated with operating were minimized by a systems design approach. A hydraulic automatic tensioner forces an idler pulley against the back of the belt, maintaining proper tension for the life of the vehicle.

    A three-piece molded plastic cover, completely encloses the belt to minimize belt noise and protect the belt from damage by foreign matter.

    Balance Shafts

    The 2,4-litre engine operates very smoothly because a system of counter-rotating balance shafts counteracts second-order unbalance, the predominant cause of four-cylinder engine vibration.

    The two counter-rotating, eccentric balance shafts, interconnected by gears, are driven by a short chain from the crankshaft. They turn at two times engine speed to offset the reciprocating mass of the pistons and connecting rods and to achieve the desired balancing effect. The balance shafts are enclosed in an aluminum housing mounted beneath the crankshaft in the oil pan. The housing is bolted to the bottom of the main bearing webs of the bedplate and rests in the oil supply. When the engine is running, the balance shafts pump oil out of the housing to minimize parasitic drag which could occur if the shafts spun in the oil.

    Fuel Injection System

    Returnless, sequential multi-port injection (SMPI) uses four dual-spray injectors to provide balanced fuel delivery to all cylinders. Injectors direct separate sprays to the intake valves. A small slot in the top of each intake port allows proper location of the injector spray. Sequential injection improves throttle response and overall driveability compared to single-point injection.

    The injection system is returnless to reduce complexity compared to customary systems. This very important emission-control innovation also drastically limits the creation of fuel vapors which must be captured by the evaporative emission-control system. The fuel return line is eliminated and the electronic control has been refined to compensate for variations in injection pressure that result. Only the fuel to be used is delivered to the engine. There's none left over that needs to be returned to the fuel tank.

    Variable injection timing is used to provide good idle quality without compromising performance and fuel economy. The fuel injection system uses the same sensors as the ignition system to provide speed, timing and cylinder-selection data. These direct acting sensors provide more accurate response than a conventional distributor. In addition, intake charge temperature and coolant temperature are used to fine tune injection rate for economy and performance.

    The throttle body has a 52 mm (2.05 in.) bore to minimize restriction at high rpm.

    Ignition System

    The 2,4-litre engine features a direct ignition system (DIS), which offers several key advantages over distributor systems:

    Reduced engine length (no distributor drive)

    Reduced engine complexity (no distributor or related parts)

    Direct information to control the fuel injection system

    Quick starts because camshaft and crankshaft sensors give early notice of which cylinder is ready for injection and ignition

    Accurate firing because ignition and fuel injection timing signals come directly from the crankshaft and camshaft

    Smooth idle because timing variation is reduced

    Quick throttle response

    Low maintenance

    High reliability because of proven sensors

    --Two sensors (one for crankshaft timing, the other for camshaft reference) provide the data to operate the ignition system.

    A Chrysler-patented two-wire knock sensor is more costly than a conventional single wire sensor, but its signal is clearer. In addition, it is more sensitive, allowing maximum spark advance under all conditions for high fuel economy, brisk response and high power without producing engine-damaging knock.

    Quality and Reliability

    The 2,4-litre engine is designed to run for 160,000 km (100,000 miles) without major service. This has required use of top-quality valve, piston ring and bearing materials.

    General Information 2,5-Litre OHV Turbocharged I-4 Diesel Engine

    The 2,5-Litre OHV turbocharged I-4 diesel engine has electronically controlled fuel injection to provide better response and meet more stringent 1996 EEC (European Economic Community) exhaust emission regulations as described below.

    The torque curve is slightly broader than in 1995; but the power ratings are the same, that is:

    Power = 85 kW (114 bph) @ 4000

    Torque = 262 N*m (193 lb-ft) @ 1800

    Cylinder Heads

    Cylinder head pre-chambers have new vertically mounted glow plugs. This location reduces starting time and exhaust smoke during warm up. Turbulator inserts in the pre-chambers at the previous glow plug locations increase mixture turbulence for smoother operation. Individual cylinder heads remain a feature of this engine.

    Accessory Drive

    Chain drive replaces gear drive for most internal accessories to make overall engine operation quieter. Equipment driven by the chain includes the camshaft, injection pump and vacuum pump. The oil pump continues to be gear driven.

    Electronic Fuel Injection System

    The Voyager 2,5-Litre turbo diesel is the first engine in a Chrysler vehicle with an electronic accelerator control system. It is also one of the first diesel engines in the world with electronic fuel injection. Diesel engine speed and power are controlled by the amount of fuel injected into the cylinders. Software in the ECM (Engine Control Module) that responds to accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed, crankshaft position, engine speed, coolant temperature and mass air flow, determines the amount of fuel that is injected and injection timing. This software contains a "map" that specifies the timing and amount of fuel to be injected for all operating conditions, enhancing responsiveness and reducing emissions. It is much more sophisticated than traditional diesel injection control that responds only to accelerator position, engine speed, and coolant temperature through mechanical analog devices.

    Transaxles

    41TE Electronically Controlled Four-Speed Overdrive Transaxle

    The 41TE transaxle available on the new Voyager is a refinement of the 1995 Voyager transaxle. It remains the industry's only automatic transaxle with adaptive controls that use real-time feedback for all shifts. During a shift, the transaxle can modulate hydraulic pressure 143 times per second -- 14 adjustments in the time it takes to blink (approximately 0,1 second) -- to assure smooth operation. The 41TE transaxle is simpler, lighter and more compact than competitive transaxles of similar capacity. A number of internal mechanical refinements increase the durability of the transaxle in response to greater customer expectations. Transaxle operation can also have a significant effect on quietness and driving experience that provides a sense of confidence. Additional refinements are directed toward meeting these requirements.

    Five-Speed Manual Transaxle

    Major refinements in the manual transaxle used with the 2,5-litre diesel and the 2,4-litre gasoline engines make operation quieter. All forward and final drive gears operate more quietly than previously, because gear faces are wider and the tooth pitch is finer. This places more teeth in contact at the same time, reducing gear noise. New input and intermediate shaft bearings, which reduce shaft deflection, also reduce gear noise.

    The reverse idler gear has revised tooth pointing angles to improve engagement. In addition, numerous internal changes increase durability and reliability.

    Powertrain Electrical And Electronic Systems

    General Information of the Transaxle Control Module

    The third generation TCM (Transmission Control Module), EATX III, used with the 41TE transaxle includes these new features:

    Increased computing speed and power that allows faster program execution by using a 16-bit rather than 8-bit data bus

    Double the electronically-programmed memory capacity -- to 64k x 16 bytes from 64k x bytes

    These added capabilities provide better shift quality by altering shift characteristics based on engine and transmission temperature. This affects shifting during warm up and when engine and/or transmission are overheated. In conjunction with a new data link to the PCM, it also allows engine torque management. The PCM in turn forwards the information to the instrument cluster for operation of the speedometer and odometer.

    Electronic Display Logic

    With the 41TE automatic transaxle, the transaxle gear indicator ("PRNDL") on the instrument panel is an electronic display that receives its signal from the TCM. Because the signal is verified by the TCM, no indicator adjustment is required and the possibility of a vague or erroneous reading is virtually eliminated.

    Interactive Automatic Speed Control

    For increased driver confidence and comfort, interactive automatic speed control provides improved operation in circumstances where the system could not control speed or customers were uneasy about using speed control. Interactive automatic speed control also avoids unnecessary shifting for smoother, quieter operation and, when downshifts are required, makes the shifts smoother than competitive systems. Interactive automatic speed control is available only with 41TE automatic transaxle. "Interactive" means that the feature is accomplished through communication between the PCM (Powertrain Control Module) and TCM. It is included in the control software and consists of the following functions:

    Overspeed Reduction - Overspeed reduction helps maintain vehicle speed at the selected set point when descending a grade. The TCM first senses that the speed control is set. If the set speed is exceeded by more than 5 km/hr (3 mph) and the throttle is closed, the TCM causes the transaxle to down shift to Third gear. After the downshift, the automatic speed control continues its normal operation. Conditions leading to a return to overdrive after the descent is complete are monitored to assure that transaxle cycling will not occur.

    Downshift Delay - To reduce the number and frequency of downshifts when operating in hilly country and to reduce engine "flare" noise when a downshift is necessary, downshift delay logic has been added. A downshift is delayed or avoided by allowing the automatic speed control unit to provide much larger throttle openings than in the past. Only if vehicle speed drops more than 1,3-1,9 km/hr (2-3 mph) below the set speed and continues to fall does a downshift occur. When the steepness of the grade demands a downshift, engine flare is eliminated by reducing the throttle opening as the shift is made. Automatic speed control quickly resumes throttle control to maintain speed. The amount of throttle opening reduction is calibrated to provide approximately the same transmission output torque after the downshift as before it.

    Grade "Hunting" Prevention Refinement

    Grade "hunting" prevention -- the ability of the transmission logic to delay an upshift on a grade if the engine does not have sufficient power to maintain speed in the higher gear -- has been expanded to include 2-3 shifts as well as 3-4 shifts. The 3-2 downshift and the potential for hunting between gears occurs with a heavily loaded vehicle or on steep grades. When hunting occurs, it is very objectionable because shifts are frequent and accompanied by large changes in noise and acceleration. The system also compensates for the loss of engine output that occurs at high altitude through communication with the PCM. Grade hunting prevention works with automatic speed control as well as normal driver control.

    General Information Gasoline Engine Powertrain Control Module

    The new Voyager uses SBEC III (single board engine controller, version 3), the newest version of the corporate PCM (Powertrain Control Module). It offers the following new features:

    Digital Control For Engine Cooling Fans -- The control software monitors coolant temperature and air conditioning system head pressure to determine fan speed. If the coolant temperature and/or air conditioning system head pressure is below target but the rate of change indicates that it will soon exceed the target, the fans are started or speed is increased. With this control strategy, it is possible to operate the air conditioning system with the fans off -- a condition not previously available on any Chrysler vehicle. Power is supplied in pulses that vary from 30 to 100% of continuous operation -- 30% "on" time produces a speed about half the maximum speed. Increased computing speed and power that allows faster program execution Quadruple the electronically-programmed memory capacity -- to 64k x 16 bytes from 32k x 8 bytes

    Starter Override

    In light of quieter engines and a quieter interior, the PCM provides a starter override feature that prevents the starter from operating if the engine is already running. This avoids embarrassment caused by the grinding noise and the potential for damage to starter and ring gear. Starter override is standard with all models and all engines. This unique feature, for which a patent is sought by Chrysler, is accomplished through computer logic alone -- no hardware is added.

    Chassis

    Suspension

    Standard Front-Wheel Drive Suspension

    The standard suspension is designed to provide ride and handling characteristics suitable for all load and driving conditions.

    Front suspension is by rubber-isolated MacPherson struts. It is similar in concept to that on previous models with added features to improve isolation and revised geometry. The upper strut mount is larger to provide increased vertical travel and increased fore-and-aft compliance to reduce harshness. A patent was granted for the increased vertical travel feature of the strut mount. The standard 25 mm (1 in.) stabilizer bar is connected to the struts through spherical-jointed links that minimize friction and harshness. Toe and camber specifications were fine tuned during development to provide excellent directional stability over bumps. Ductile nodular cast iron lower control arms have in line rubber isolation bushings to minimize friction. Arm design is asymmetrical,having one bushing opposite the lower ball joint to resist lateral load and the other rearward to cushion impact bumps. Urethane jounce bumpers enhance ride when fully loaded or when negotiating bumps that require full suspension travel.

    A rubber-isolated cast-aluminum front suspension cross member is the first major structural member of cast aluminum in a US engineered vehicle. It weighs about 9 kg (20 lb.) less than a similar design in steel. The isolators are tuned in three axes to control vibration and damp out harshness and noise before it reaches the passenger compartment. The casting has a hat-shaped cross section to which a steel base plate is bolted.

    The cross member has the natural corrosion protection of aluminum. The base plate is isolated from the aluminum and protected against corrosion by galvanizing and a thick layer of electro-coat paint. Corrosion-resistant fasteners attach the base plate to the casting.

    On front-wheel drive models, the rear suspension has high strength-to-weight tapered, single leaf springs and a tubular beam axle with track bar. Rubber biscuits isolate the springs from the axle. The track bar increases lateral stiffness to provide a steady ride in the rear seating positions. The short -- 700 mm (27.5 in.) -- track bar supplements the lateral stiffness of the rubber-isolated leaf springs.

    The rear stabilizer bar is interconnects both sides of the rear axle and attaches to the rear frame rails. Jounce and rebound movements affecting one wheel are partially transmitted to the opposite wheel to reduce body roll.

    Front and rear track are both wider than on prior models, contributing to handling stability. Front track is 1600 mm (63 in.) -- 78 mm (3 in.) wider; rear track is 1626 mm (64 in.) -- 50 mm (2 in.) wider.

    Load-Leveling Suspension

    Load-Leveling Suspension -- self-leveling rear suspension shock absorbers -- is standard on LX and all-wheel drive models and optional on other front-wheel drive models. Lower rate springs work with the self leveling shock absorbers to provide the same rate as vehicles without this feature to assure a smooth fully-loaded ride and a "normal" attitude. Vehicle appearance is also enhanced when fully loaded. The new Voyager is the first US-engineered vehicle to use this system. When passengers or cargo are added, these units use normal ride motions that occur during driving, even on very smooth roads, to raise the rear of the vehicle within 20-25 mm (0.8-1.0 in.) of curb height. When the load is removed, the vehicle returns immediately to its unloaded height. Operation of the system is noiseless, simple, highly reliable and requires no driver attention. The Load Leveling Suspension units are self-contained. There are no external sensors, plumbing or wiring.

    All-Wheel Drive Suspension

    All-Wheel Drive front suspension is the same as the front-wheel-drive front suspension. Design features affected by this commonization include the tall front cross member that provides for a high-mounted steering rack to clear the rear drive shaft and raised steering arm location on the steering knuckle. The steering rack and steering arms are 50 mm (2 in.) higher than on the previous front-wheel drive Voyager. A unique combination of rear suspension components are used with all-wheel drive, including non-isolated multi-leaf rear springs, a unique shock absorber calibration and Load-Leveling Suspension. Increased lateral stiffness of the multi-leaf springs makes a track bar unnecessary.

    Steering

    A precision, ground-edge valve is used in the rack and pinion steering gear to minimize steering valve hydraulic noise during parking and low-speed maneuvering. The valve also helps give the steering a crisp on-center feel. Steering effort is fine-tuned to balance steering characteristics with vehicle response characteristics. Wider front track allows a sharper turning angle resulting in a 1,04 m (3.4 ft.) reduction in long-wheelbase turning circle and 0,92 m (3.0 ft.) in short-wheelbase turning circle compared to 1995 models. Long-wheelbase models now turn in less space than previous short-wheelbase models and new short-wheelbase models are even more maneuverable.

    Tires and Wheels

    European-sourced 215/65R15 Goodyear GT2 tires are standard with highline and premium models. Their construction and tread pattern are tailored for dry and wet traction to provide the handling qualities required by European drivers. 215/65R16 Michelin MX4 touring tires are standard on Voyager LX. Cast aluminum wheels are included with LE and LX models.

    Spare Tire

    A full-size spare tire is standard on LX, all other have a compact spare tire as standard equipment. The spare tire is stowed under the cargo floor in both front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive configurations. Under-floor tire stowage is new for all-wheel drive models. A winch operated by the tire lug wrench raises and lowers the tire.

    Brakes

    Four-Wheel Anti-Lock Brakes

    Four-wheel anti-lock brakes are standard with LE and LX models. They are optional with SE models. The hydraulic unit is further simplified from previous units but provides the same performance and pedal feedback characteristics. To reduce ABS operating noise transmission to the passenger compartment and thereby provide a perception of smoother operation, the hydraulic unit with its motor, pump, solenoids and valves is rubber-isolated from its lightweight cast magnesium bracket which in turn is attached to the rubber-isolated front suspension cross member.

    Front Brakes

    Disc brakes with sliding, single piston calipers are standard on all models. All models use heavy-duty front rotors that have an additional 1 mm (0.04 in.) thickness in each cheek over U.S. versions. The additional material increases the heat dissipation capability of the rotors to meet European customer requirements for the expected higher driving speeds and mandatory trailer towing requirements.

    Rear Brakes

    Rear drum brakes have dual-mode actuation that provides both smooth, consistent dynamic operation and a parking brake with powerful static holding ability. Under dynamic conditions, leading and trailing shoe actuation provides smooth consistent operation. The patented parking brake linkage provides added engagement action similar to that of a duo-servo brake to hold the vehicle on a grade with very low pedal travel and low effort. The cast iron drums are larger -- 250 x 55-mm (9.8 x 2.17 in.) -- than on prior models with transverse fins and flared inboard flanges to increase their heat capacity. The mechanisms are self adjusting.

    Fuel Supply

    The fuel supply system uses the same 75 L (20 gal.) molded plastic tank for both FWD and AWD applications -- an increase of 7,5 L (2 gal.) for the AWD model. A locking fuel filler cap is standard on all models. A one-piece molded plastic door with integral hinge covers the filler cap. The hinge has a detent to hold the door open while refueling. A fueling interlock is included with the second sliding door. It prevents the sliding door from opening when the fuel door is open.

    In keeping with Chrysler practice, the fuel supply system is returnless, reducing the amount of fuel vapor that the evaporative emission control system is required to handle. A five-function fuel pump module is installed in the tank. This module includes the electric pump, fuel pressure regulator, fuel reservoir, fuel level sensor for the fuel gauge and a filter "sock".

    Cooling System

    Two fans are used to provide full coverage of the low, wide radiator and air conditioning condenser. The motors are lighter and less costly than previous two-speed units which required additional wiring to provide the second speed. Motor speed is controlled by the PCM (Powertrain Control Module).

    Cooling system fan speed is continuously variable so that fan speed is no higher than required to maintain proper cooling, minimizing fan noise. The lowest operating speed is lower than that provided by previous two-speed fan systems. To vary the speed, electrical power is supplied in pulses of varying width which is modulated by the PCM. In addition, fan speed at startup is increased gradually for a more esthetically pleasing sound.

    Exhaust System

    With all engines, the exhaust pipe and manifold are flanged and sealed with a gasket for quieter operation than the spherical "doughnut" used on previous models. A bellows-type flexible coupling in the exhaust pipe allows relative motion between the engine and the pipe. This connecting system provides life-of-the-vehicle durability.

    The exhaust system uses stainless steel for all pipes, the catalytic converter housing, muffler and resonator in common with other Chrysler vehicles. Extensive development and tuning of the systems along with tighter control of production tolerances has produced quieter, more pleasant sounds with approximately 15% less back pressure than prior systems. The exhaust system with diesel engine is unique and does not have a catalytic converter.

    PRODUCTION FACILITIES

    Initially, we believe that the plant will cost approximately $ 850 million to build and set-up. The size and production capabilities of the plant are adequate and comply with the requirements at hand. Construction of the plant is estimated to last about 2 years. The specifications below display the features of our proposed plant in Thailand. These figures represent the production rate for year 3 onward. At the outset, the initial plant capacity will be 50,000 units / year.

    Floor Space -- 1.5 million square feet

    Products -- Chrysler Voyager

    Production Rate -- 965 vehicles / day , 3 shifts

    Production (Annual) -- 200,000 units

    Employment -- 3850 at full production

    Training Hours -- 65,000 hours

    Annual Payroll -- $ 8.5 million (estimated)

    Robotics -- 200 robots in plant

    Computers -- Over 175 in system

    OWNERSHIP AND FINANCING

    We at Chrysler, believe that ownership procedures and incentives should abide by the trade rule of international alliances. We believe that the newly formed venture should comprise of a board of directors consisting of 12 members ; 7 Chrysler executives and 5 AutoThai executives. Furthermore, we also propose to finance the joint venture through 50 % equity and 50 % borrowed in the form of credit. Overall, Chrysler will administer sufficient financing in the form of 70 % equity.

    Tax and other incentives

    When chosen for this venture, Chrysler will provide a grant in the amount equal to 1 / 3 of the cost of improving the infra-structure between Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, we would like the government to respect the incentives provided for foreign investors such as :

    Tax holidays of 8 years from corporate income tax

    Exemptions from withholding taxes

    Permission to carry forward losses and deduct them for up to five years after tax holidays period expiration.

    Guarantees against nationalization, and price controls.

    Any form of licenses or permissions that have to be obtained by Chrysler should be obtained by the domestic company (AutoThai).

    Chrysler must be allowed to export their profits from the production and sales of the products abroad, into the U.S.

    There will be significant technological transfer such as Thai personnel training, machinery, technological documentation, etc.


    Copyright 1996, Chysler Team Designed and Maintained by Zan Kuang.