Background Information

(Researched and developed by Marcus Paula-Pereira)


The links on this page are for archival purposes. There is no guarantee the pages they link to are maintained.



	2.1 RIO EARTH SUMMIT (1992)


	4.1 DSS/IPC
	4.2 ISO-14000


	6.2 CLEAN AIR ENGINEERING               
	6.3 CUBIX CORPORATION               
	6.9  ATI
	6.10 EOTECH





1.1 Background History of Air Pollution

Air pollution is a relatively recent phenomena. It started during the Industrial Revolution about 200 years ago. In nineteenth-century England, towns, such as London and Manchester had very poor air quality due to massive coal burning and industria l activity. In the second half of the twentieth-century, the growth of the automobile industry and transport have transformed air pollution into a serious global health hazard.

Most air pollutants in the air are man-made (the only natural air pollutant is radon.) Combustion of gasoline, coal, and oil contribute to most of the pollutants in the air, including carbon monoxide and lead. Industries have also become another major source of air pollution by adding nitrogen dioxide, particular matters, and sulfur dioxide to the air.

One of the most deadly forms of air pollutant is carbon monoxide. Odorless and colorless, it can reduce the ability of blood to transport oxygen. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide are also toxic and are responsible for causing smog, acid rain, and respiratory problems. Lead may cause mental and respiratory disorders, cancer and reproductive problems. Particulate matter is the most prevalent air pollutant. Besides contributing to the formation of smog, these microscopic particles may affect breathing, causing increased respiratory disease, lung damage, and possibly premature death. Radon, a radioactive gas, has been found to cause cancer.

In the United States in the past 25 years, measures have been taken by the federal government and the people to stop air pollution. In the 1970s the government banned the use of leaded gasoline. In the United States, emission control catalytic converters were made a requi rement on all cars. Over the years the air pollutant control standards have been tightened, electrostatic precipitators and filters are now standard on most U.S. factories. Finally, the use of chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) has been banned throughout the U.S. and most of the world.

1.2 Major Air Pollutants and their damaging effects:

Health Effects: breathing problems, reduced lung function, asthma, irritates eyes, stuffy nose, reduced resistance to colds and other infections, may speed up aging of lung tissue

Environmental Effects: ozone can damage plants and trees; smog can cause reduced visibility

Property Damage: Damages rubber, fabrics, etc.

2. VOC's (volatile organic compounds); smog-formers

Source: VOCs are released from burning fuel (gasoline, oil, wood coal, natural gas, etc.), solvents, paints glues and other products used at work or at home. Cars are an important source of VOCs. VOCs include chemicals such as benzene, toluene, methylene chloride and methyl chloroform

Health Effects: In addition to ozone (smog) effects, many VOCs can cause serious health problems such as cancer and other effects

Environmental Effects: In addition to ozone (smog) effects, some VOCs such as formaldehyde and ethylene may harm plants

* All VOCs contain carbon (C), the basic chemical element found in living beings. Carbon-containing chemicals are called organic. Volatile chemicals escape into the air easily. Many VOCs are also hazardous ai r pollutants, which can cause very serious illnesses. EPA does not list VOCs as criteria air pollutants, but they are included in this list of pollutants because efforts to control smog target VOCs for reduction.

3. Nitrogen Dioxide (One of the NOx); smog-forming chemical

Source: burning of gasoline, natural gas, coal, oil etc. Cars are an important source of NO2.

Health Effects: lung damage, illnesses of breathing passages and lungs (respiratory system)

Environmental Effects: nitrogen dioxide is an ingredient of acid rain (acid aerosols), which can damage trees and lakes. Acid aerosols can reduce visibility.

Property Damage: acid aerosols can eat away stone used on buildings, statues, monuments, etc.

4. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Health Effects: reduces ability of blood to bring oxygen to body cells and tissues; cells and tissues need oxygen to work. Carbon monoxide may be particularly hazardous to people who have heart or circulatory (blood vessel) problems and people w ho have damaged lungs or breathing passages.

5. Particulate Matter (PM-10); (dust, smoke, soot)

Source: burning of wood, diesel and other fuels; industrial plants; agriculture (plowing, burning off fields); unpaved roads

Health Effects: nose and throat irritation, lung damage, bronchitis, early death

Environmental Effects: particulates are the main source that reduces visibility.

Property Damage: ashes, soots, smokes and dusts can dirty and discolor structures and other property, including clothes and furniture

6. Sulfur Dioxide

Source: burning of coal and oil, especially high-sulfur coal from the Eastern United States; industrial processes (paper, metals)

Health Effects: breathing problems, may cause permanent damage to lungs

Environmental Effects: SO is an ingredient in acid rain (acid aerosols), which can damage trees and lakes. Acid aerosols can also reduce visibility.

Property Damage: Acid aerosols can eat away stone used in buildings, statues, monuments, etc.

7. Lead

Source: Leaded gasoline (being phased out), paint (houses, cars), smelters (metal refineries); manufacture of lead storage batteries

Health Effects: Brain and other nervous system damage; children are at special risk. Some lead-containing chemicals cause cancer in animals. Lead causes digestive and other health problems.

Environmental Effects: Lead can harm wildlife.


2.1 Conclusion of Rio Earth Summit (1992) regarding AP.

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janeiro on June 3-14, 1992. This so-called Earth Summit took place 20 years after the 1972 Stockholm Declaration1 first laid the foundations of contempor ary environmental policy. As a high-level forum with universal participation, UNCEDís main aim was to show the way to a new global strategy for reconciling development needs with environmental protection. The key results of UNCED were the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, Forest Principles, and two international conventions, one concerning climate change, the other biodiversity. The decisions taken and the documents adopted by UNCED are likely to have important implications for the future international response to climate change, as well as for virtually every other environmental issue.

UNCEDís success was made possible by the two-year preparatory process that preceded the actual Earth Summit. A Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) for UNCED, established by the UN General Assembly, began its work in early 1990. The PrepCom received guidanc e from a number of UN bodies on how to address UNCEDís various topics. It established three working groups and held an organizational meeting and four substantive sessions between March 1990 and April 1992. The PrepCom dealt extensively with UNCEDís prima ry concern of integrating environmental and development aims to promote sustainable development. The work relating to climate change focused on assisting and monitoring efforts already underway in the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framewor k Convention on Climate Change (INC/FCCC) and in other UN bodies.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed at UNCED by 153 States and the European Community. After 15 months of tough negotiations, the Convention was adopted in New York on May 9, 1992 by the INC/FCCC. The negotiations were concluded in time for the treaty to be officially opened for signature in Rio, as intended. UNCED was considered the proper forum for affirming the international communityís support for this important international treaty. (The other legally binding docum ent signed at UNCED was the Convention on Biological Diversity.)

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development adopted at UNCED sets out key principles of relevance to climate change. Although not legally binding, the Declaration contains 27 principles intended to shape future international and national action on environment and development. Some of these principles had already been affirmed at climate change and other international conferences, such as the common but differentiated responsibilities of states at different levels of development, the need for sus tainable development, and the precautionary principle.

Agenda 21, UNCEDís 40-chapter environmental action agenda for the 21st century, contains a chapter on protecting the atmosphere. Chapter 9 of Agenda 21 recommends measures that governments and other bodies can take to improve the scientific understandi ng of climate change, to promote sustainable energy use and production, and to reduce the damage caused to the atmosphere by transport, industry, resource development, and land use. Chapter 9 also makes recommendations about the related issues of stratosp heric ozone depletion and transboundary atmospheric pollution. This chapter was one of the most difficult to negotiate and caused substantive disagreements up to the last moment.

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2.2 AP and Global Warming

"Climate change" refers to any change in climate over time whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. Climate change historically has occurred as a result of natural forces, but is now occurring in part because of human activi ties. Recent indicators of climate change include rising sea levels, the retreat of alpine glaciers, and, since the mid-19th Century, global warming.

The greenhouse effect - which allows incoming solar radiation to pass through the Earth's atmosphere but prevents much of the outgoing infra-red radiation from escaping into outer space - is a natural process. The natural greenhouse effect has k ept the Earth's average surface temperature approximately 33 degree Celsius (roughly 60 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than it would be were there no atmosphere.

Human activities over the past 200 years, particularly fossil fuel combustion, have been resulting in significant emissions of anthropogenic (i.e.,human-induced) greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide. Emissions of these anthropogenic greenhouse ga ses have already altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases are creating an "enhanced greenhouse effect," akin to an atmospheric blanket trapping gases and infrared radiation beneath it, resulting in a temperature rise of the Earthís atmosphere.

"Global warming" refers to a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth. Observations show that the global average surface temperature has increased by about 1 degree Fahrenheit over the past century. Analyses indicate that this is a n unusually large, rapid and prolonged warming trend, and suggest that the warming is due to human influences.

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2.3 AP and the Ozone Layer

Over 60 years ago, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) were invented in the United States, and they soon found many uses throughout the world in refrigeration,air conditioning, and other industrial processes. Due to scientific evidence that CFC's and other che micals destroy ozone in the upper atmosphere, the United States, the country which has traditionally been the largest emitter of CFC's worldwide, is rapidly scaling back the use of these chemicals and phasing out their production.

The ozone (O3) layer in the stratosphere protects life on earth from exposure to dangerous levels of ultraviolet light. It does so by filtering out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. When CFC's and other ozone-degrading chemicals are emitted, they mix with the atmosphere and eventually rise to the stratosphere. There, the chlorine and the bromine they contain catalyze the destruction of ozone. This destruction is occurring at a more rapid rate than ozone can be created through natural processe s.

The degradation of the ozone layer leads to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth's surface. This in turn can lead to a greater incidence of skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems, and is expected also to reduce crop yields , diminish the productivity of the oceans, and possibly to contribute to the decline of amphibious populations that is occurring around the world.

The chemicals most responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer are: chlorofluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide, methyl chloroform, and halons. Chlorofluorocarbons have long been widely used as coolants in refrigerators and air con ditioners and as foaming agents, solvents, and aerosol propellants. Carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform are important industrial solvents. In the United States, carbon tetrachloride is now used almost entirely as a feedstock for the production of c hlorofluorocarbons. Hydrogenated CFC's (HCFC's) have many of the same uses as CFCs and are increasingly employed as interim substitutes for CFC's. Halons have been used in fire extinguishers.

Long predicted, the degradation of the ozone layer was dramatically confirmed when a large hole in the layer over Antarctica was reported in 1985. Smaller but significant stratospheric decreases have been seen over more populated regions of the Earth. Subsequent research established that industrial chemicals are responsible for the observed depletions of ozone over Antarctica and play a major role in global ozone losses.

2.3.1 Ozone-depleting Human Activities

Chlorine and bromine are emitted to the atmosphere from both natural and human sources. These very stable human-made chemicals are not soluble in water and are not broken down chemically in the lower atmosphere. Thus they survive long enough to reach t he stratosphere. The CFCs and carbon tetrachloride are relatively inactive in the lower atmosphere (the troposphere) and move unscathed into the stratosphere where they are decomposed by intense sunlight, releasing chlorine to catalyze the destruction of ozone molecules.

Certain ozone-depleting chemicals (HCFC-22 and methyl chloroform) are more reactive in the troposphere and deliver less of their initial chlorine load to the stratosphere. Halons also are generally reactive in the troposphere and deliver only a fractio n of their initial load of bromine to the stratosphere, but bromine is 40 times more efficient at destroying ozone than chlorine. Increasing attention is being focused on the ozone-depleting role of methyl bromide, which has three potentially major human sources (soil fumigation, biomass burning, and the exhaust of automobiles using leaded gasoline), in addition to a natural oceanic source.

U.S. production of ozone-depleting gases has declined significantly since 1988, and has now reached levels (measured by their ozone depletion potential) comparable to those of 30 years ago. Because of international agreements to decrease production and ultimately to phase out production of CFCs and halons, scientists expect that total chlorine and bromine concentrations in the troposphere will peak by 1996 and begin a slow decline soon thereafter. Concentrations are expected to peak in the stratosphere 3-5 years later. Increasing ozone losses are predicted for the remainder of the decade, with gradual recovery by the mid-21st century.

2.3.2 Worldwide State of the Environment

Worldwide monitoring has shown that stratospheric ozone has been decreasing for the past two decades or more. The average loss across the globe totaled about 5 percent since the mid-1960s, with cumulative losses of about 10 percent in the winter and sp ring and a 5 percent loss in the summer and autumn over

2.3.3 Ozone Depletion in North America, Europe and Australia.

Since the late 1970s, an ozone hole has formed over Antarctica each austral spring (September/October), in which up to 60 percent of the total ozone is depleted. Record low global ozone levels were recorded in 1992 and 1993. These lows were due, in par t, to large amounts of stratospheric sulfate particles from the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991; the sulfate particles temporarily accelerated the ozone depletion caused by human-made chlorine and bromine compounds.

As expected from the increasing use of CFC substitutes, observations from several sites have revealed rising concentrations of these compounds in the atmosphere. These substitutes have short tropospheric lifetimes, which tends to reduce their impact on stratospheric ozone as compared to CFCs and halons. However, some are potent greenhouse gases.

The link between a decrease in stratospheric ozone and an increase in surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface has been strengthened during the last several years by simultaneous measurements of total ozone and UV radiation in Antarcti ca and the southern part of South America during the period of the seasonal ozone "hole." The measurements show that when total ozone decreases, UV increases. Furthermore, elevated surface UV levels in mid-to-high latitudes were observed in the Northern H emisphere in 1992 and 1993, corresponding to the low ozone levels of those years. However, the lack of long-term monitoring of surface UV levels and uncertainties introduced by clouds and ground-level pollutants have precluded the unequivocal identificati on of a long-term trend in surface UV radiation.

2.3.4 Responses to Ozone Depletion

Reacting to the environmental threat of ozone depletion, the nations of the world came together to create a global treaty, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The agreement entered into force in 1988 and the subsequent Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer entered into force in 1989. Currently 140 countries are parties to the Montreal Protocol. The parties to the Protocol decided on a timetable for countries to reduce and to end their production and consu mption of eight major halocarbons. The Protocol also provides a ten-year delay in this timetable for those developing countries consuming less than 0.3 kilograms per capita.

The Montreal Protocol timetable was accelerated in 1990 and 1992. Amendments were adopted in response to scientific evidence that stratospheric ozone is depleting faster than predicted. As part of an effort to speed the phase-out of production and cons umption of ozone-depleting chemicals, the parties to the Protocol decided to provide technology transfer and funds from industrial to developing countries. Under the accelerated schedule, the production of most controlled gases is to cease by January 1, 1 996. The developing countries, however, may receive residual production from industrialized countries not to exceed 15 percent of 1986 levels. Some individual governments have committed to even earlier phaseout deadlines.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under authority of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, issued regulations for the phaseout of production and importation of ozone-depleting chemicals controlled under the Protocol through a marketable permit program. In addition, EPA established controls on refrigerant recycling to prevent emissions in both motor vehicle and stationary systems , a ban on nonessential products, labeling requirements, a program to review safe alternative substances, and requirements to revise fed eral procurement specifications. Under the regulations, surplus or recycled substances can in general be stored to service existing machinery.

Because of the importance of the ozone layer and the complexity of the chemical reactions affecting it, the condition of the ozone layer must continue to be monitored.

Acknowledgements: This bulletin is first in a series of environment indicator bullet ins covering major topics of environmental protection. It is a product of a collaboration between the World Resources Institute and the Environmental Indicators Team of EPA's Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, Division of Environmental Statistics and Information. This report was prepared in collaboration with the EPA Office of Air and Radiation's Stratospheric Protection Division (SPD). The World Wide Web version was created by SPD based on the original hard copy.

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2.4 AP and major respiratory illnesses

Thousands of early deaths could be averted with cleaner air standards. Every year, some 64,000 people may die prematurely from cardiopulmonary causes linked to particulate air pollution, according to an analysis conducted by NRDC. Tens of thousands of these deaths could be averted each year if the Environmental Protection Agency set stringent health standards for fine-particle pollution.

In the most polluted cities, lives are shortened by an average of one to two years. Los Angeles tops the list, with an estimated 5,873 early deaths, followed by New York (4,024), Chicago (3,479), Philadelphia (2,599) and Detroit (2,123).

To gauge the extent of the particulate pollution problem, NRDC applied the findings of a 1995 study by the American Cancer Society and Harvard Medical School to local data. The ACS study is the largest, most comprehensive long-term study in a growing body of epidemiological evidence showing the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution. It used statistical techniques to factor out the effect of other risk factors such as smoking, body weight, and occupational exposures.

In addition to smoke and soot, particulate air pollution consists of tiny aerosol particles formed from gaseous emissions of sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The primary sources nationally are older, coal-fired power plants, industrial bo ilers, and gas-and diesel-powered vehicles.

Particulate pollution is classified by size, with finer particles (PM2.5) considered by health scientists to be more dangerous than coarser material (PM10) because they are small enough to evade the body's respiratory defense mechanisms and lodge deep in lung tissue. Current air-quality standards do not regulate fine particle pollution.

NRDC's analysis shows that between 4,662 and 37,562 lives could be prolonged under the range of new standards for fine particles (PM2.5) under consideration by EPA of 12.5 to 20 micrograms per cubic meter (g/m3) on an annual average basis. To better pr otect public health, NRDC recommends that EPA establish a new standard for PM2.5 at a level of 10 g/m3 on an annual average basis, and establish stringent new limits on 24-hour concentrations. Individuals can also help reduce particulate pollution through simple steps such as using energy-efficient light bulbs and appliances, maintaining cars properly, insulating homes, and curtailing use of wood stoves for home heating in favor of cleaner fuels.

Based on BREATH-TAKING: Premature Mortality Due to Particulate Air Pollution in

239 American Cities, a May 1996 report by the Natural Resources Defense Council. To view mortality data for individual cities and states, see the online version of Breath-taking on the NRDC Pro web.

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2.5 - Flora and Fauna/Biodiversity:

What Do we Know About Biodiversity?

Earth's plants, animals, and microorganisms-interacting with one another and the physical environment in ecosystems- form the foundation of sustainable development. Biotic resources from this wealth of life support human livelihoods and aspirations and make it possible to adapt to changing needs and environments. The steady erosion of this biodiversity . . . taking place today will undermine progress toward a sustainable society. Indeed, the continuing lo ss of biodiversity is a telling measure of the imbalance between human needs and wants and nature's capacity. (World Resources Institute, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and United Nations Environment Programme, The Global Biodiversity Strategy, p. 1.)

When exploring indicators that might shed light on the conservation of biodiversity, the first step is to assess how well current managementsystems are achieving conservation objectives. The next step is to describe the present status of biodiversity, the current threats, the measures that can be undertaken to protect biodiversity, and the types of indicators needed on various scales to determine whether conservation objectives are being met.

Biodiversity-or the total diversity of living things on the planet--encompasses genetic diversity within species, diversity among species, and diversity of assemblages of species into ecosystems. Diversity in human cultures is also an important component because each culture represents a working solution to the problems of human survival in a particular environment.

The earth's biodiversity embodies values greater than those placed on it by the marketplace. But we cannot quantify many of the aspects we value most, such as genetic and species richness; ecological balance; recreational, commercial, and research oppo rtunities; consumption benefits; and nonconsumption benefits such as aesthetic pleasure.

Biodiversity interests have two monitorable foci. One relates to ecosystems and species in natural and modified habitats and the other to genetic diversity among species of current economic use. Economic viability requires maintenance of a broad enough base of livestock breeds and crop varieties to sustain economic activity in the long run. While managed ecosystems deserve equally detailed study, this chapter focuses on the ecosystems and species of natural and seminatural habitats.

Biodiversity Loss

Habitat loss is the primary threat to terrestrial biodiversity, which explains the present emphasis on protecting habitats. The root causes of habitat loss are varied but driven largely by human population pressure and demands for material goods. In ro ughly descending order of extent of impact, the main causes of habitat loss in land-based ecosystems are conversion for agriculture and settlement, logging and the establishment of tree plantations, and pollution. Where the remaining natural habitat is insufficient in size or too fragmented to support its previous ecological functions, effective losses often extend beyond the actual areas of conversion. In Africa, for example, forest fragmentation and degradation affected an area roughly equal to that def orested in the 1980s.

In the case of aquatic ecosystems, pollution and the introduction of exotic species play a more prominent role in both the destruction of habitat and the loss of species biodiversity. Commercial overharvesting of many freshwater and marine species is d riving marine populations below the critical thresholds needed for species survival, and in some cases below levels required for the sustainable supply of food sources. Global estimates for total freshwater and marine catch increased up to 1992 (see FAO, A Forest Resources Assessment 199 0). But these gains masked regional declines and declines in the numbers of more commercially valuable species. The increase in catch can be attributed to increasing levels of fishing effort as improved technology and government subsidies brought down the cost of harvesting. But historical trends indicate that as harvesting effort has increased, total marine catch has declined. This means that productivity has been declining with increased investment. Fishing fleets work harder and longer trying to maintain previous levels of harvest, fish populations decline further, and fishing industry profits and marine species populations spiral downward.

More than 75 percent of threatened mammal species and roughly 60 percent of threatened bird species also face pressures of habitat destruction. Hunting is the next greatest threat, followed by introduced species, illegal international trade, wetland dr ainage, pollution, and incidental takes. Hunting, moreover, can occur at levels that will threaten biodiversity but not necessarily visibly disturb the landscape.

A Comprehensive Approach to Conserving Biodiversity:

A comprehensive approach to conserving biodiversity, the Global Diversity Strategy, was put forward in 1992 by the World Resources Institute, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and United Nations Environment Programme in consultati on with the Food and Agriculture Organization and UNESCO.3 In addition to addressing the driving forces that underlie direct pressures, it considers the need to strengthen the tools and technologies of biodiversity conservation. At the international level , the following six components seem key:

* Protection of a representative range of ecosystems, sites with high biodiversity, and sites containing rare or endangered species within appropriately managed and adequately sized conservation reserves (on-site conservation).

* Management of surrounding areas to complement and amplify the conservation of biodiversity in adjacent reserves and within the protected area network (off-site conservation).

* Investigation of ways to integrate biodiversity conservation with the local use of natural resources into sustainable conservation and management strategies that benefit local populations.

* Establishment of off-site gene banks (in zoos and botanical gardens) to foster education, research, and the conservation of rare or endangered plants and animals whose wild populations face imminent threats of extinction as well as particularly usefu l species and varieties.

* Monitoring of pollution changes and conservation of selected indicator species both on and off reserve areas.

* Identification and modification of national and international policies such as subsidies that presently encourage the unsustainable use of habitats.

Biodiversity preservation is both a national and international concern. Pressures from population growth and increased consumption will continue, particularly in developing countries, where the majority of threatened species are found. Overexploitation of resources for local consumption and illegal international trade are particularly acute threats in less-developed areas, where local populations rely on hunting and collecting for supplementary nutrition and income. In such circumstances, knowledge of how protection will affect the income and social fabric of local populations and local participation in conservation projects are both prerequisites for successful protection. Once trained in sustainable resource management, local populations have a strong incentive to manage their natural c apital with an eye to maintaining those environmental services on which their incomes depend.

International aid has been mobilized and conventions established to counterbalance the ill effects of commercial overexploitation and international trade. Multilateral lending agencies, including the World Bank, are placing increasing emphasis on investments that provide alternative economic opportunities that ease pressures on the environment. In extreme cases, the international community has sought to regulate or ban trade. The Convention on Internatio nal Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, for instance, was signed by 113 countries.

Clearly, if conservation is a global goal, nations must cooperate and share the financial burden. To date international resolve has resulted in establishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Convention on Biological Diversity, world herita ge sites, and biosphere reserves. At the same time, many countries are preparing individual strategy plans to meet the objectives identified in various treaties and conventions. A listing of these countries and their action plans would serve as a rudiment ary indicator of the world's policy response to the problem of natural resource conservation.

Market forces have also been brought to bear. Consumer preferences for dolphin-safe tuna, recycled goods, and eco-labeled timber, for example, are encouraging demand-driven adjustments in production techniques.

On-Site and Off-Site Maintenance of Biodiversity

The 118 countries that had ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity as of April 1995 accepted protection of biodiversity as a global goal. But how best to achieve this protection is an open question. Various management methods are presently in u se, ranging from on-site systems (such as wildlife refuges) to off-site systems (such as zoos and seed banks). Each has differing objectives and is part of a matrix of responses for biodiversity protection (see table 2.1).

Most biodiversity efforts have been directed at on-site conservation, which must continue to be the backbone of national and regional strategies. On-site protection provides a broad range of benefits. Protection of an ecosystem as habitat maintains suc h ecological processes as soil stabilization, watershed protection, nutrient cycling, pollutant filtration, carbon sequestration, and moderation of microclimates. It also allows for the evolution and propagation of species. Forest ecosystems with appropri ate management can provide sustainable sources of income or income supplements in the form of fuelwood, construction materials, nontimber forest products, and ecotourism. When pollution and land-use pressures make on-site conservation uncertain or ineffec tive, off-site conservation is important as a form of genetic insurance for individual species.

Although it is generally recognized that ecosystem protection provides a broad range of benefits and opportunities for environmental research, outdoor recreation, and aesthetic enjoyment, many valuable natural areas are unprotected or protected only in name. While ongoing research continues to pinpoint the areas where the world's diversity is most threatened and clarify how it can best be protected, both on- and off-site protection are necessary.

Population pressures and land-use realities are such that the protected-area network by itself will not be sufficiently large or offer enough diversity to save many natural resources. Adjacent-site conservation efforts (establishing buffer zones around reserves and connections among primary habitat areas with the cooperation of local people) will be increasingly important to sustain viable populations of scarce and wide-ranging species.

In addition to delineating such management goals as forest protection or wildlife preservation, countries need to classify protected areas into ecofloristic zones. Ideally, systems of protected areas should be designed to cover a representative range o f zones. Yet the distribution of protected areas is often skewed. Designation is frequently influenced by such social or practical considerations as ease of protection or competing land uses.

To the greatest extent possible, the distribution of protected areas by management goal and ecofloristic zone should be based on ecological principles. Protected areas should be representative of a country's species and ecosystems and sufficient in sca le to sustain ecological functions.

Given a focus on policies related to protected areas and in site conservation, indicators are needed to find out:

* Where the world's biodiversity is.

* How viable it is.

* Where the protected areas are.

* Where and why habitat loss is occurring.


1. I. Serageldin and A. Steer, eds., Making Development Sustainable: From Concepts to Action. Environmentally Sustainable Development Occasional Paper Series no. 2 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1994).

2. Food and Agriculture Organization, A Forest Resources Assessment (Tropical Countries) 1990 (Rome: FAO, 1993).

3. World Resources Institute, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, and United Nations Environment Programme, The Global Biodiversity Strategy (Washington, D.C.: WRI/IUCN/UNEP, 1992).

4. E. Dinerstein and others, A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1995).

5. W. B. Magrath, C. Peters, N. Kishor, and P. Kishor, "The Economic Supply of Biodiversity in West Kalimantan: Preliminary Results." Asia Technical Department Series no. 281. World Bank, Washington, D.C., forthcoming.

6. J. Alcamo, ed., IMAGE 2.0: Integrated Modeling of Global Climate Change (Dodrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994).

7. B. Ten Brink and W. Douma, "Biodiversity Indicators for Integrated Environmental Assessments at the Regional and Global Level." RIVM Discussion Paper. Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, Netherlands, forthcoming.

8. D. Bryant, "The Ecosystem Indicator Model: Draft Concept Paper." World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., June 1995.


3.1 In the United States:

3.1.1. The role of the federal, state and local governments

Features of the 1990 Clean Air Act

Although the 1990 Clean Air Act is a federal law covering the entire country, the states do much of the work to carry out the Act. For example, a state air pollution agency holds a hearing on a permit application by a power or chemical plant or fines a company for violating air pollution limits.

Under this law, EPA sets limits on how much of a pollutant can be in the air anywhere in the United States. This ensures that all Americans have the same basic health and environmental protections. The law allows individual states to have stronger poll ution controls, but states are not allowed to have weaker pollution controls than those set for the whole country.

The law recognizes that it makes sense for states to take the lead in carrying out the Clean Air Act, because pollution control problems often require special understanding of local industries, geography, housing patterns, etc.

States have to develop state implementation plans (SIPs) that explain how each state will do its job under the Clean Air Act. A state implementation plan is a collection of the regulations a state will use to clean up polluted areas. The states must in volve the public, through hearings and opportunities to comment, in the development of each state implementation plan.

EPA must approve each SIP, and if a SIP isn't acceptable, EPA can take over enforcing the Clean Air Act in that state.

The United States government, through EPA, assists the states by providing scientific research, expert studies, engineering designs and money to support clean air programs.

Interstate air pollution

Air pollution often travels from its source in one state to another state. In many metropolitan areas, people live in one state and work or shop in an- other; air pollution from cars and trucks may spread throughout the interstate area. The 1990 Clean Air Act provides for interstate commissions on air pollution control, which are to develop regional strategies for cleaning up air pollution. The 1990 Clean Air Act includes other provisions to reduce interstate air pollution.

International air pollution

Air pollution moves across national borders. The 1990 law covers pollution that originates in Mexico and Canada and drifts into the United States and pollution from the United States that reaches Canada and Mexico.


One of the major breakthroughs in the 1990 Clean Air Act is a permit program for larger sources that release pollutants into the air.[2]

[2] A source can be a power plant, factory or anything that releases pollutants into the air. Cars, trucks and other motor vehicles are sources, and consumer products and machines used in industry can be sources too. Sources that stay in one place are referred to as stationary sources; sources that move around, like cars or planes, are called mobile sources.

Requiring polluters to apply for a permit is not a new idea. Approximately 35 states have had state- wide permit programs for air pollution. The Clean Water Act requires permits to release pollutants into lakes, rivers or other waterways. Now air pollu tion is also going to be managed by a national permit system. Under the new program, permits are issued by states or, when a state fails to carry out the Clean Air Act satisfactorily, by EPA. The permit includes information on which pollutants are being r eleased, how much may be released, and what kinds of steps the source's owner or operator is taking to reduce pollution, including plans to monitor (measure) the pollution. The permit system is especially useful for businesses covered by more than one par t of the law, since information about all of a source's air pollution will now be in one place. The permit system simplifies and clarifies businesses' obligations for cleaning up air pollution and, over time, can reduce paperwork. For instance, an electri c power plant may be covered by the acid rain, hazardous air pollutant and non-attainment (smog) parts of the Clean Air Act; the detailed information required by all these separate sections will be in one place--on the permit.

Permit applications and permits are available to the public; one may contact his or her state or regional air pollution control agency or EPA for information on access to these documents.

Businesses seeking permits have to pay permit fees much like car owners paying for car registrations. The money from the fees will help pay for state air pollution control activities.


The 1990 Clean Air Act gives important new enforcement powers to EPA. It used to be very difficult for EPA to penalize a company for violating the Clean Air Act. EPA has to go to court for even minor violations. The 1990 law enables EPA to fine violato rs, much like a police officer giving traffic tickets. Other parts of the 1990 law increase penalties for violating the Act and bring the Clean Air Act's enforcement powers in line with other environmental laws.


The 1990 Clean Air Act sets deadlines for EPA, states, local governments and businesses to reduce air pollution. The deadlines in the 1990 Clean Air Act were designed to be more realistic than deadlines in previous versions of the law, so it is more likely that these deadlines will be met.

Public participation

Public participation is a very important part of the 1990 Clean Air Act. Throughout the Act, the public is given opportunities to take part in determining how the law will be carried out. For instance, you can take part in hearings on the state and local plans for cleaning up air pollution. You can sue the government or a source's owner or operator to get action when EPA or your state has not enforced the Act. You can request action by the state or EPA against violators.

The reports required by the Act are public documents. A great deal of information will be collected on just how much pollution is being released; these monitoring (measuring) data will be available to the public. The 1990 Clean Air Act ordered EPA to s et up clearinghouses to collect and give out technical information. Typically, these clearinghouses will serve the public as well as state and other air pollution control agencies.

Market approaches for reducing air pollution and economic incentives

The 1990 Clean Air Act has many features designed to clean up air pollution as efficiently and inexpensively as possible, letting businesses make choices on the best way to reach pollution cleanup goals. These new flexible programs are called market or market-based approaches. For instance, the acid rain clean-up program offers businesses choices as to how they reach their pollution reduction goals and includes pollution allowances that can be traded, bought and sold.

The 1990 Clean Air Act provides economic incentives for cleaning up pollution. For instance, gasoline refiners can get credits if they produce cleaner gasoline than required, and they can use those credits when their gasoline doesn't quite meet clean-u p requirements

3.1.2. The role of the EPA

EPA's Mission

The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is to protect public health and to safeguard and improve the natural environment - air, water, and land - upon which human life depends. EPA's purpose is to ensure that :

2. Environmental protection is an integral consideration in U.S. policies concerning economic growth, energy, transportation, agriculture, industry, international trade, and natural resources;

3. National efforts to reduce environmental risk are based on the best available scientific information;

4. All parts of society - business, state and local governments, communities, citizens have full access to information so that they can become full participants in preventing pollution and protecting human health and the environment.

3.1.3. New EPA proposed legislation

More than three decades ago, the American public began demanding a higher standard of environmental accountability from industry. After more than a century of neglect, our ecosystems were showing the harmful effects of economic prosperity and populatio n growth. Safer air, cleaner water and uncontaminated land came to the forefront of the American agenda. In 1970 EPA was established, formalizing the American sentiment. Summarized in a single, unyielding mission, EPA pledged to protect human health and the environment.

Focusing on air, water, and land, EPA has developed specific programs to clean-up past mistakes and prevent future pollution. On a national scale, these targeted efforts have resulted in vast improvements in environmental quality. At the same time, hun dreds of communities across the nation can relate individual success stories about changes for the better.

Today, EPA's mission of protecting human health and the environment continues to be the foundation of all of our programs and efforts. As EPA has grown, however, we have discovered more effective and less costly means of preventing pollution and addres sing environmental challenges.

We envision a 21st century America in which economic incentives, environmental incentives, and technological innovation are aligned so that economic growth improves -- rather than diminishes -- environmental quality.

In the next century, environmental protection must be driven by clear and measurable national goals. Economic, environmental and social goals must be integrated so policies are mutually supportive, not conflicting. Performance will be measured by achie ving real results in the real world, not simply by adhering to procedures.

Our new way of thinking is more comprehensive -- instead of focusing on specific media such as air or water, EPA now looks at entire ecological systems and develops integrated environmental solutions. Some key aspects of this "community-based" approach include:

1. Developing consensus-based solutions. EPA is bringing industry representatives, environmental groups, concerned citizens and local governments to the negotiating table. With EPA as moderator, these groups are working to resolve their differences and agree on mutually acceptable environmental solutions.

2. Empowering the public with information. By providing information, EPA is able to form partnerships, increase public awareness and improve data quality and access. These initiatives encourage public involvement in decision making as together we s trive to reduce the risks associated with environmental pollutants.

3. Practicing multi-media environmental protection. Increasingly, EPA is developing solutions to environmental problems that consider water, air, and land management within a coordinated system. When effectively managed, this comprehensive approach helps EPA address all of the environmental dilemmas within an ecosystem.

4. Building partnerships with regulated communities. Highly-regulated industries are being encouraged to exchange information and data with the EPA. By learning more about the industries we regulate -- their internal processes, profitability, and c ompetition -- we can develop more informed and more effective pollution control programs.

5. Increasing the use of promising new technologies. Older regulatory programs sometimes inhibit innovations in pollution control technology. The EPA is now supporting pilot programs where companies can test promising new ideas under less rigid reg ulatory frameworks.

6. Using more market-based incentives. The EPA is increasingly looking to the free-market as an effective means of pollution control. The tradeable air emissions permit system is one program that is already in place. Over time, the EPA hopes to inc rease the use of other market-based programs such as deposit-refund systems, recyclable markets and rebates on environmentally benign products.

EPA has already started to use these approaches in a number of program areas. Some of these efforts are described below.

Common Sense Initiative

The Common Sense Initiative (CSI) forges a collaborative working relationship between EPA, the states and industry. In the past, industry kept most of their engineering and cost data secret, hoping to win concessions from the EPA. The CSI removes this veil, bringing these groups together to share information about environmental goals and industrial processes. As allies, the EPA and the six pilot industries are finding that open and honest discussions promote "cleaner, cheaper, and smarter" systems of e nvironmental protection. Through added flexibility, lower costs and more effective pollution control, both the EPA and industry are realizing the advantages of this common-sense approach.

Project XL

Project XL is an innovative program that encourages industry groups, government agencies, or even individuals to test new pollution prevention and control technologies. Under this program, EPA provides real-world testing opportunities for program parti cipants. EPA also removes many of the regulatory burdens that often impede the development of new environmental technologies. Already, the program's impact is being felt. EPA's project participants are currently testing a number of innovative ideas, inclu ding a unique process for treating contaminated soil without removing it from the ground.

Design for the Environment

The Design for the Environment Program (DfE) is a voluntary program which aims to help businesses incorporate environmental considerations into the design and redesign of products, processes and technical and management systems. Through the DfE program , the EPA creates voluntary partnerships with industry, professional organizations, state and local governments, other federal agencies and the public to promote safer substitutes, technologies and chemical processes.

3.1.4 California AP laws:

Why they are the most stringent?

What is their impact on US AP laws?

A Statement by John D. Dunlap III, a chairman of California Air Resources Board:

California's efforts to improve air quality began in 1947, when the Legislature authorized individual counties to conduct their own air-quality programs. In the ensuing 50 years, California has become a world leader in the control of air pollution. Many air-quality measures pioneered in our state have become commonplace throughout the world. While California's population and economy have grown dramatically since 1947, human exposure to health-threatening air pollutants has significantly decreased.

The state's Air Pollution Control Laws embody the determination of the people of California to have clean, healthy air. These laws have been the cornerstone of our past successes and provide us with the means for attaining our future goals. But they ar e not written in concrete. They will always be a work in progress, a reflection of the best innovative thinking by California's scientists, engineers, businesspeople, environmentalists and political leaders. Our 1997 laws encapsulate what we have learned during the last 50 years. But they are flexible enough to incorporate what we will learn tomorrow.

John D. Dunlap, III Chairman Air Resources Board.

Air Pollution Statutes and Regulations

Last Updated May 19, 1997

The California Code of Regulations is NOT available to the California Air Resources Board in its full text format for presentation on this website. Titles 13 and 17 are cross-referenced in many areas of the California Air Pollution Control Laws identif ied below. In addition, there are certain areas within CARBIS which do provide the actual regulation language. Please go to:

The Airborne Toxic Control Measures, page or

The Cleaner Burning Gasoline Program,

The Consumer Products Program,

The Diesel Fuel Regulations

The Equipment Precertification Program

The Low-Emission Vehicle Program, or

The On-Board Diagnostics Program.

3.2 United Kingdom

Local Air Quality Management

In line with the Department of the Environment strategic air quality policies, local authorities are investigating the implications of:

A new framework of national air quality standards and targets;

New systems for local air quality management based on Air Quality Management Areas Effective control of emissions, particularly from vehicles.

New national air quality standards and targets

The Government plans to establish standards and targets for nine individual pollutants in line with the rest of the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards, the European Community and World Health Organisation. Local authorities and central Government wi ll have new powers and duties to establish plans for delivering these new targets wherever air quality is at risk. The standards and targets will be supported by improvement of the existing monitoring system and public information arrangements. The Govern ment intends that air quality targets will be realised everywhere in the UK by 2005.

The new targets and standards will be supported by :

1. a periodic review of air quality by all local authorities;

2. the establishment of Air Quality Management Areas in those places where air quality targets that are unlikely to be met;

3. powers and obligations on local authorities and other relevant bodies to prepare plans for remedying air quality problems in Air Quality Management Areas.

4. securing for the first time the effective coordination of all activities which can influence air quality improvement in the most cost-effective manner in those areas where it is most needed.

Air Quality Management Areas

The enabling powers for local authorities to declare Air Quality Management Areas will be similar to their existing powers to declare Smoke Control Zones. The local authority will publish a detailed assessment of local air quality in the area and it is intended that they will be able to bid for central funding to support the preparation of this assessment. The preparation of a first report on local air quality and of plans to improve it will follow a set timetable, this report will be reviewed periodic ally and should be coordinated with the revision of local authorities' land use and development plans.

Local Authorities will appraise development plans against their detailed assessment of air quality. It will also take this assessment into account when exercising its planning, transport and pollution control responsibilities and should ensure that the relative contribution of industry, transport and other sectors to the achievement of the plan's objectives are cost effective and proportionate. In addition, the local authority will be expected to develop a local information strategy, which should aim t o provide day-to-day information to the public on the quality of the air in the Air Quality Management Area.

Towards a Local Air Quality Plan

A range of tools including emission inventories, modelling and monitoring will be needed by a local authority in determining whether or not its area will exceed air quality standards, and therefore require the implementation of an Air Quality Managemen t Plan. The resource requirements to carry out this process of monitoring and modelling are, however, often prohibitive in terms of finance, staff and technical skills required. Consequently, there is a risk that expectations may be raised which, because of resource constraints, can not be fulfilled. ARIC therefore suggests that local authorities should consider carrying out a feasibility study before committing themselves to either the designation of an area or the formulation of a plan.

Clean Air Act 1993 (c. 11)

The Act is introduced by the Long Title which states:

"An Act to consolidate the Clean Air Acts 1956 and 1968 and certain related enactments, with amendments to give effect to recommendations of the Law Commission and the Scottish Law Commission."

The Arrangement of Sections shows the contents of the Act.

Part I - Dark Smoke

Part II - Smoke, grit, dust and fumes

Part III - Smoke control areas

Part IV - Control of certain forms of air pollution

Part V - Information about air pollution

Part VI - Special Cases

Part VII - Miscellaneous and general

Part I - Dark Smoke

  1. Prohibition of dark smoke from chimneys
  2. Prohibition of dark smoke from industrial or trade premises.

Part II - Smoke, grit, dust and fumes

3. Installation of furnaces

  1. Requirement that new furnaces shall be so far as practicable smokeless.
  2. Limits on rate of emission of grit and dust

6. Arrestment plant for new non-domestic furnaces.

7. Exemptions from section 6.

8. Requirement to fit arrestment plant for burning solid fuel in other cases.

9. Appeal to Secretary of State against refusal of approval.

10. Measurement of grit, dust and fumes by occupiers.

11. Measurement of grit, dust and fumes by local authorities.

12. Information about furnaces and fuel consumed.

13. Grit and dust from outdoor furnaces, etc.

14. Height of chimneys for furnaces.

15. Applications for approval of height of chimneys of furnaces.

16. Height of other chimneys.

17. Abatement of smoke nuisances in Scotland.

Part III - Smoke control areas

18. Declaration of smoke control area by local authority.

19. Power of Secretary of State to require creation of smoke control areas.

20. Prohibition on emission of smoke in smoke control area.

21. Power by order to exempt certain fireplaces.

22. Exemptions relating to particular areas.

23. Acquisition and sale of unauthorised fuel in a smoke control area.

24. Power of local authority to require adaptation of fireplaces in private dwellings.

25. Expenditure incurred in relation to adaptations in private dwellings.

26. Power of local authority to make grants towards adaptations to fireplaces in churches, chapels, buildings used by charities etc.

27. References to adaptations for avoiding contraventions of section 20.

28. Cases where expenditure is taken to be incurred on execution of works.

29. Interpretation of Part III.

Part IV - Control of certain forms of air pollution

30. Regulations about motor fuel.

31. Regulations about sulphur content of oil fuel for furnaces or engines.

32. Provisions supplementary to sections 30 and 31.

33. Cable burning.

Part V - Information about air pollution

34. Research and publicity.

35. Obtaining information.

36. Notices requiring information about air pollution.

37. Appeals against notices under section 36.

38. Regulations about local authority functions under sections 34, 35 and 36.

39. Provision by local authorities of information for Secretary of State.

40. Interpretation of Part V.

Part VI - Special Cases

41. Relation to Environmental Protection Act 1990.

42. Colliery spoilbanks.

43. Railway engines.

44. Vessels.

45. Exemption for purposes of investigations and research.

46. Crown premises, etc.

Part VII - Miscellaneous and general

47. Application to fumes and gases of certain provisions as to grit, dust and smoke.

48. Power to give effect to international agreements.

49. Unjustified disclosures of information.

50. Cumulative penalties on continuance of certain offences.

51. Duty to notify occupiers of offences.

  1. Offences committed by bodies corporate.
  2. Offence due to act or default of another.

54. Power of county court to authorise works and order payments.

55. General provisions as to enforcement.

56. Rights of entry and inspection etc.

57. Provisions supplementary to section 56.

58. Power of local authorities to obtain information.

59. Local inquiries.

60. Default powers.

61. Joint exercise of local authority functions.

62. Application of certain provisions of Part XII of Public Health Act 1936 and corresponding Scottish legislation.

63. Regulations and orders.

64. General provisions as to interpretation.

65. Application to Isles of Scilly.

66. Transitory provisions relating to Alkali, &c. Works Regulation Act 1906.

67. Consequential amendments, transitional provisions and repeals.

68. Short title, commencement and extent.


Executive Summary of the National Communication of France submitted under Articles 4 and 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change:


Awareness of the threat to the climate owing to the rising emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), led the French government to undertake a policy of controlling the emissions of greenhouse gases, as a precautionary measure. This commitment by the French authorities was reflected in active participation in international projects, particularly the negotiation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was ratified by France on 25 March 1994.

This commitment to adopt policies and measures aimed at limiting the emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, which figures in Article 4, paragraph 2 of the Convention, will be applied throughout th e European Union, with the Union and its member states acting according to their respective competence. The initiatives now being taken by the community are in fact particularly important and effective in many fields such as transport, duty on fuels, misc ellaneous regulations (notably as regards the environment) and the Common Agricultural Policy.

The energy policy operated by the French authorities since the first oil shock has already enabled them to reduce CO2 emissions very considerably, and thus the contribution of France to the greenhouse effect. This policy has relied on the fo llowing, in particular:

- the specification of strict regulations aiming to encourage energy saving.

- heating regulations for dwellings is a very significant example of this.

- the use of taxation. The high level of tax on fuels, which is above the levels practised in most developed countries, has contributed strongly in the past to limitation of carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, numerous fiscal encouragements aiming t o improve energy efficiency have been put in place since 1974, especially in industry and in the home.

- a large programme of energy saving and energy efficiency, to develop and disseminate "clean and sensible" energy policies. Since 1974, France has run an Energy Saving Agency, which has dealt with energy consumption as final demand and in industrial activity, constituting a centre of skill and expertise over time.

Between 1980 and 1990, the magnitude of this policy has enabled France to reduce CO2 emissions per inhabitant more than any other member state of the European Union.


It should be emphasized that the winter of 1990 was mild. In average climatic conditions, the consumption of fossil-based energy (excepting electricity) for heating of buildings would have increased CO2 emissions by 9.5 million tonnes, which is 3 per cent of the gross emissions in 1990.

The very slight increase of emissions due to the use of fossil-based energy seen between 1990 and 1993 resulted mainly from variations in climate, the winter of 1993 having been very close to normal. Nevertheless, two facts, independent of climatic cha nges, deserve to be emphasized:

- a continuous increase in CO2 emissions in the overseas departments and territories (DOM-TOM) between 1990 and 1993 (over 20 per cent),

- the regular increase in CO2emissions in the transport sector over the same period (5.5 per cent).

The latter is an indication of an ongoing trend. From 1980 to 1993, CO2 emissions related to the use of fossil-based energy in the various sectors in metropolitan France, after correction for climate variations, have evolved as follows:

Transport + 39 per cent

Residential and Tertiary - 13 per cent

Industry and agriculture - 37 per cent

Electric power stations - 76 per cent

Weighted average. - 25 per cent

Methane emissions

The data given for methane and nitrous oxide emissions are very imprecise, particularly when account is taken of uncertainties applicable to the techniques used to measure these emissions in the agricultural and waste dump areas.

Methane emissions amounted in 1990 to about 2.90 million tonnes, over 55 per cent of which came from agricultural activities, 25 per cent from waste disposal, and especially the consignment of waste to dumps, and 10 per cent from fugitive emissions in the course of fuel extraction and distribution, the remainder occurring in the course of fuel consumption.

Since 1970, France has reduced its emissions due to coal production and gas distribution, with the closure of many mines and investments made for the purpose of improving the gas distribution networks.

On the other hand, the increase in the volume of waste breaking down in dumps certainly contributed in the 1980's to a significant growth in methane emissions from dumps. The policy of eliminating dumping, adopted in 1992, has not yet had time to produ ce any notable effects.

Nitrous oxide emissions

NO2 emissions in 1990 amounted to about 177,000 tonnes, 60 per cent of which came from industrial processes, and 35 per cent from the use of fertilizers in agriculture. Marginally, some emissions also come from energy production in flame-pow ered thermal power stations or from motor vehicles.

Gases with an indirect effect, tropospheric ozone precursors

Emissions of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide, are estimated respectively at about 1.7 million tonnes, 2.4 million tonnes and 11 million tonnes for 1990. The use of fossil-based energy is by far the main source of emissi on of these indirect-effect gases, with the exception of the VOC emissions, or an equally large part of emissions coming from the use of solvents.

Description of the Policies and Measures for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Reduction of CO2 emissions


If account is taken of emissions due to flame-combustion power plants, which are due in essence to seasonal requirements for electric heating, the building sector represents over one third of CO2 emissions in France. France conducted a vigor ous energy conservation policy in this sector since the first oil shock, using regulatory measures governing new buildings and incentives aimed at existing buildings.

New buildings

From 1974 onward, France has taken the initiative, in close association with professionals in the building industry, of legislating requirements to be applied to the thermal insulation of new buildings. The fairly irreversible character of decisions ma de in the area of new construction encouraged France to go even further and to anticipate the progressive growth of the constraints which will be put in place to mitigate global warming.

From 1 January 1997, thermal standards for dwellings will be strengthened by raising the requirements in proportion to the energy gain obtained by substituting slightly emissive double glazing with ordinary double-glazing. This measure will result in a reduction of 5 to 10 per cent of heating needs.

Thermal standards of the tertiary sector, which was far behind that applicable to dwellings, will be reinforced with an objective of reducing energy consumption by 25 per cent. This will take effect before 1 July 1997 for non-air-conditioned buildings, and before 1 January 1999 for air-conditioned buildings.

These two measures will give a gain of 0.16 MtC in the year 2000. However, they also have a cumulative effect which makes their long-term impact far greater than the short-term effect.

Existing buildings

Ever since the first oil shock in 1973, France has been developing a vigorous energy conservation policy in the area of existing buildings, and substantial improvements have been achieved here. Nevertheless, viable interventions in respect of energy co nservation still remain to be effected, and this policy will be pursued through measures which depend upon information to users, regulation and standardization of new equipments and incentives for investments leading to energy saving.

For State buildings, the Government has set itself the objective of making energy conservation investments between 1995 and 1997 which have a 6 years payback time. This should result in a reduction of 12 per cent in their energy consumption.

Finally with regard to the fiscal approach to prevent global warming, France has proposed to its partners in the European Union that a tax be levied on fuels used in the residential and tertiary areas.

In all, the measures concerning existing buildings should enable a gain of 3.4 MtC per annum to be achieved in the year 2000.


Cooperation with companies in the energy intensive sectors is being conducted with a view to achieving the signature of voluntary agreements which will lead to significant savings in fossil-based carbon emissions; potential emission reductions are esti mated at 5 MtC a year in this field on the basis of 1990 activity. In parallel with this, the policy of public aid in the control of energy use in industry, including financial aid (support for research and development, aid for demonstration of exemplary investment, etc.) and fiscal encouragements (exceptional depreciation, exoneration or reduction of

various indirect taxation thresholds, etc.), will be pursued.


Transport (with the exception of maritime bunkers) represent over one third of French CO2 emissions, and constitute the sector in which emission growth is fastest. In addition to specific measures adopted to mitigate global warming, many oth er public measures, necessary for various reasons within the transport policy, also have the effect of reducing this contribution. It should be noted that many of these actions originate from initiatives to be taken by the European Union.

Transport of merchandise (other than commercial vehicles)

With the aim of establishing the best conditions for exercising the profession of road transportation of goods, various measures have been adopted in cooperation with the profession (strengthening of the conditions of access to the profession, impositi on of sanctions if the regulations are not observed, etc.). These measures could achieve a reduction in emissions due to road transportation of goods of about 0.4 MtC per annum in the year 2000.

Moreover, France is proposing to its partners in the European Union that it should programme the progressive raising of the minimum rate of community excise on gasoil, in order to transfer to the transport industry all of the costs which they create fo r the general public. An increase of 10 per cent

in the price of gasoil will lead to a reduction in carbon emissions of 0.15 MtC/yr.

It is intended to double combined road-rail traffic between 1990 and 2000, and this will result in a carbon emission reduction of 0.13 MtC/yr. As soon as 1995 onward, credits available to such combined transportation were increased by 300 MF.

Finally, technical actions relating to the vehicles themselves will be studied in a community context, with the objective of reducing unit consumption by 20 per cent between now and 2015.

Passenger transportation and commercial vehicles

In 1994, the government adopted two measures to reduce polluting emissions from the existing car pool, which will also have an impact on CO2 emissions:

- The obligation to repair vehicles which have been declared defective in respect of pollutant emission when they are subjected to technical checks should result in a gain of 0.32 MtC per year;

- A payment of 5000 French francs for the replacement by a new vehicle of one which is over 10 years old, and due to be scrapped, should lead to a short-term reduction of tens of thousands of tonnes of carbon in French emissions.

Furthermore, France has the intention to promote the following:

- Reduction in the European Union of the level of specific consumption of new vehicles. This average level could be set, for example, to 5L/100 km by 2005. To this end, France is proposing that the feasibility of a system of negotiable permits should b e studied at the European Union level. France has also undertaken a study at national level on a possible change in the road tax payable annually by motorists, to act as motivation;

- Development of vehicles specifically for town use;

- Development of electric vehicles and other alternative vehicle types (GPL/GNV).

Policies relating to urban transportation will have a considerable impact on CO2 emissions, and should set themselves the objective of controlling the growth of motorized transportation and facilitating the use of more economical modes of tr ansport in terms of space and energy. Though these policies are the prerogative of local authorities, these authorities will be made aware of their responsibilities in the matter. In addition to the investment capital which it allocates to local authoriti es for public transport, to the value of 5.5 GF per year, the State also intends to assist them in the conducting of the necessary studies and in their documentation.

Finally, the development of high-speed trains for inter-city travel is leading to an energy-efficient alternative to the use of cars or aircraft. It also substitutes electrical energy for fossil-fuel energy. The estimated gain in respect of CO2 emissions is 0.13 MtC/yr by the year 2000.

Electricity generation

The special character of France in electricity production, related to the magnitude of the nuclear contribution to electricity generation, is considerably reducing its margin of manouver in the future development of its emissions in this sector. Only r eduction of the peak of electricity demand and substitution of electricity for fossil fuels for non-seasonal uses will lead to reductions in CO2 emissions. To this end:

- EDF is proposing a new price structure which is modulated with time (the "Tempo" charging system, which includes 6 time zones with different charges throughout the year), and this should lead to a reduction in peak electricity consumption, with a con sequent emission gain of 0.5 MtC/yr in 2000.

- Demand side management action started in 1993 and affecting seasonal demand and demand in "départements" not connected to the metropolitan network in particular (Corsica and DOM-TOM), should lead to additional emission reductions of 1.7 MtC pe r annum by the year 2010.

- EDF also will promote the penetration of electricity into the area of non-seasonal uses in industry. The use of investment with a return period of under 6 years can lead to emission reductions of up to 1.8 Mt/yr by 2000.

- Equalization of low voltage electricity prices over the whole country leads to over-consumption of electricity, both in isolated regions where electricity is frequently fossil-fuel based, or in sparsely-inhabited rural zones where it can artificially replace renewable energy sources. EDF will invest 100 MF/year in operations designed to prevent this.

Development of the carbon sinks related to forest

France decided to develop its policy of public support to forestry (aid toward plantation, to which was added a bonus for revenue compensation), setting itself the objective for increasing the rate of supported afforested land from 10,000 hectares per year over the decade of the 1980s, to 30,000 hectares per year from 1998 onward. This policy will enable it to maintain the rate of increase in carbon stocks in the forest by the year 2000 at its 1990 level, compensating for the natural slowing of carbon storage in the forest already existing in 1990, and which is progressively reaching maturity.

Changes in land use

Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 1992 should put a brake on the movement of grassland or woodland conversion into arable land, which was a result of the agricultural policy followed since the sixties. This will result in a reduction of carbo n emissions from the soil estimated at 2 MtC per year by 2000.

Renewable energy

The measures adopted in this area (development of wind and hydro power; development of wood as an energy source, in particular by the launch of the "Wood Energy Plan" which was aimed at the structuring, in a certain number of pilot regions, of a verita ble wood-energy chain for collective heating;

development of the agricultural biomass for energy uses; use of energy generated from waste) should lead to savings of some 0.64 MtC/year by 2000.

Other greenhouse-effect gases (methane, nitrous oxide precursors oftropospheric ozone)

Changes in the emission of these gases will come in the main from measures adopted for a variety of reasons in the context of environmental policy (the law on waste, which forbids the dumping of normal waste, regulatory actions concerning automobile po llution, protection of waterways against pollution by nitrates, etc.) or of sectorial policies (agricultural policy in particular).

Special regulatory measures will nevertheless be implemented with a view to limiting CH4 emissions from existing dumps and NO2emissions from the main industrial emitters. Investments to be made in adipic acid, nitric acid and glyoxylic acid plants, should reduce emissions of N2O on the industrial sector by 72 thousand tonnes between now and the year 2000. The reduction in NO2 emissions in the agricultural area is estimated to be 7.5 thousand tonnes of NO2 per year between 1990 and 2000.


Given the present programme, the emissions in metropolitan France due to energy use may increase from 104.5 million tonnes of carbon (MtC) in 1990(2), to 108.5 MtC in 2000, though this includes a range of uncertainty of some 20 MtC. This uncertainty is related to contingencies concerning growth, oil prices, the availability of nuclear power plant, and the climate.

Where other greenhouse-effect gases are concerned, the actions set in train should enable emissions of methane to be stabilized in the year 2000 at their 1990 levels, with nitrous oxide emissions reducing by half and those of nitrogen oxides and volati le organic gases reducing by a third.

By weighing the emissions of methane and of nitrous oxide by their global warming potential over 100 years, as indicated by the IPCC in 1994 (24.5 for CH4 and 320 for N2O), we arrive at the following figures for net emissions, expressed in millions of equivalent tonnes of carbon, in accordance with the IPCC methodology (that is not corrected for climate, and including DOM-TOMs but not carriers).

One should however keep in mind the considerable uncertainty affecting these emission forecasts for reasons which are independent of the national climate change mitigation programme.


Cooperation with developing countries

In 1992, the amount of official development assistance (ODA) from the French government was almost 44 billion francs. Its ODA rate in relation to gross domestic product (0.63 per cent in 1992) places France in the number five position in the OECD. In a bsolute figures, France is the third largest contributor to the Development Aid Committee of the OECD, after the United States and Japan.

France is also committed to increasing its ODA rate to 0.7 per cent of GDP between now and the end of the century.

Bilateral aid

In parallel with the re-constitution of funds for the Global Environment Facility (GEF), France has also put in place the French global environment facility, consisting of 0.44 billion francs over the period 1994-1998, in order to stimulate the French aid effort in the area of global environment, providing it with new intervention resources. France thus intends to finance exemplary projects forming part of wider programmes of sustainable development.

In addition, numerous projects undertaken in the context of the ODA also contribute to the mitigation of the greenhouse effect in the receiving countries.

Of the 25 billion francs devoted to project oriented assistance during the 1992/1993 period, in the form of subsidies or loans with conditions which are more advantageous than those of the open market, about 5 per cent relate to operations favouring th e mitigation of the greenhouse effect (some 1.2 billion francs). These are, inter alia, rural development projects; sustainable management projects of forest areas; projects aiming at increasing the use of waste, renewable energy and natural gas; projects in support of better management of the electricity sector; investment projects in the rail-transport area or public transport in conurbations.

France considers that reducing the debts of poor countries is also a measure which favours preservation of the environment in general and mitigation of the greenhouse effect in particular. The commitments of France for this purpose, between 1988 and 19 93, amounted to 16.2 billion francs. In 1994, cancellation of payments to the value of 25 billion francs in respect of countries in the 'Franc Zone" was announced as a measure aimed at softening the effect for a 50 per cent devaluation of the CFA (African Financial Community) franc. Finally, in 1993 France established a "debt conversion fund for development" for the four intermediate income countries in the franc zone of sub-Saharan Africa, with the objective of converting debt to the benefit of sustained develop ment. Projects to safeguard the environment is one of the categories into which these operations can fall.

The contribution in the research area was 2.5 billion francs in 1992, this being devoted mainly to financing specialized research bodies, the CIRAD and the ORSTOM, which run many programmes in the agricultural and forestry areas in particular. These pr ogrammes contribute widely to the mitigation of climate change in the developing countries.

Multilateral aid

In order to deal with the global threats to the planet such as global warming, damage to the ozone layer, the reduction of biodiversity and the pollution of international waters, France and Germany proposed in 1989, at the annual meetings of the Intern ational Monetary Fund and the World Bank, the creation of a special financial mechanism intended to assist developing countries face this new challenge. This mechanism was created in November 1990 and the sum of 1.1 billion dollars was made available for a 3-year pilot phase. During this period, France and Germany were the leading contributors with 0.81 billion francs, or 18 per cent of the total contribution.

In March 1994, the resources of the GEF were reconstituted to the extent of 2 billion dollars for a further 4-year period; France continued its contribution of 0.81 billion francs. The different countries' contributions were based on a rule very simila r to that of IDA-10.

France is of the opinion that since these contributions from the developed countries are intended to prevent global pollution, the distribution rule should evolve in the future so as to take into account both GDP and the damage done to the global environment (the level of CO2 emissions) by the donor countries.

Cooperation with countries in transition to market economies

Safety of the nuclear industry

In close cooperation with Germany, France has played a leading role in the cooperation exercised by the international community for almost four years now, in favour of improving nuclear safety in the countries of central and eastern Europe, and of the former USSR. France thus agrees a financial effort of 200 MF (for 1993/94) to international funds for nuclear safety in the east, controlled by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and 150 MF for bilateral operations. To this has b een added a voluntary contribution to the International Atomic Energy Agency (4 MF in 1992 and 1993) and the placing of France experts at the disposal of the agency.

This cooperation mainly concerns safety in control of the process, an improvement in the technical arrangements, and the strengthening of regulatory regimes for nuclear power stations.

The objective of these actions is to avoid any new accident with direct serious consequences, which could hinder nuclear development, even where the industry is designed and run in a reliable manner, and to preserve a means of a carbon free electricity production scheme, avoiding the emission of some 60 MtC per year in the countries concerned.

Energy saving and reduction of natural gas leaks

In all of the countries of Eastern Europe, it is estimated that 30 per cent of the energy used could be saved by introducing practices common in the West.

Actions financed by French and bilateral funding are frequently the first stage of a project which is then continued by multilateral financing (World Bank, EBRD, the Phare and Tacis Community programmes, etc.).

If these various actions are to be really effective, the energy users in these countries must be made aware of energy management, and as far as Russia is concerned, priority in this process is given to bringing fuel prices rapidly into line with world levels.

Active cooperation is also developing in the area of natural gas, under the leadership of Gaz de France, which has applied itself since 1991 to convincing its partners, through various projects (training, demonstrations, etc.), of the effectiveness of distribution techniques using polyethylene pipe networks.



21 November 1995


In accordance with decision 9/2 of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (INC/FCCC), the interim secretariat is to make available, in the official languages of the United Nations, the executive summar ies of the national communications submitted by Annex I Parties.

Note: Executive summaries of national communications issued prior to the first session of the Conference of the Parties bear the symbol A/AC.237/NC/___.

Copies of the national communications of France may be obtained from the following address:

Mission interministerielle de l'effet de serre

Secretariat de la Mission

Ministere de l'enveronment

20, avenue de Segur

75302 Paris Cedex 07SP

Fax No. (33-1) 40 81 23 93


Executive Summary of the National Communication of Germany submitted under Articles 4 and 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides an internationally binding basis for combatting the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. With this first report of the Federal Government to the Conference of the Parties, Germany has fulfi lled its obligation pursuant to the

Framework Convention's Article 12. In August 1993, a preliminary report was presented entitled "Climate Protection in Germany - National Report of the Federal Government for the Federal Republic of Germany in anticipation of Article 12 of the United Na tions Framework Convention on Climate Change". The present report is an updated, substantially revised and expanded version of that preliminary report. Until their unification on 3 October, 1990, the two parts of Germany belonged to two different politica l blocs; this added to the difficulty of preparing this report. As a result of the long separation, data in many areas is not comparable; where this is the case, the data has been presented separately - even for the period after 1990.

Anthropogenic emissions

CO2 emissions in Germany (not including high-seas bunkering and international air transport) decreased from 1,068 million tonnes in 1987 (the reference year for the Federal Government's CO2 -reduction resolution) to 911 million to nnes in 1993. This corresponds to a 14.7% reduction within this period. In the area of the former GDR, CO2 emissions decreased by nearly 50% during this period (the main reasons for this decrease were economic restructuring, a reduction in popu lation size by about 6%, a partial transfer of production to former West Germany, improvements in energy-use efficiency and a decrease in consumption of lignite, which is an intensive source of CO2 emissions). CO2 emissions in former West Germany were some 2% higher in 1993 than they were in 1987, but the population in the area of former West Germany also grew by some 7% from 1987 to 1993. From 1987 to 1993, energy-related per-capita CO2 emissions in Germany (not including high-seas bunkering and international air transport) decreased from 13.4 to 10.9 tonnes per inhabitant (a decrease of 18.7%). In the area of former West Germany, the decrease over the same period was about 4% (from 11.4 to 10.9 tonnes per inhabitant), while in the area of the former GDR it was about 45% (from 20.5 to 11.2 tonnes per inhabitant).

Methane emissions in Germany decreased by some 12% between 1970 and 1992, to 6,200 kilotonnes per year. In contrast with the decreasing emissions in former West Germany, emissions in the area of the former GDR increased until 1989. This trend was rever sed in 1990, however, through a drastic reduction in livestock inventories. Nitrogen oxide emissions in Germany decreased by some 4% between 1975 and 1991 - to 2,900 kilotonnes per year. Emissions increased until about the mid-1980s; since then, they have been decreasing. Carbon monoxide emissions decreased relatively constantly from 1975 to 1991, reaching 9,400 kilotonnes per year, for a total decrease of 45%. Emissions of methane-free volatile organic compounds decreased by about 11% from 1975to 1991; i n 1991 they were 2,850 kilotonnes per year.

The amount of carbon stored in Germany's forests is estimated as being between 1.5 to 2.0 billion tonnes (5.5 to 7.4 billion tonnes of CO2). The annual carbon-level increase in the existing 10.8 million hectares of forest is some 5.4 million tonnes (some 20 million tonnes of CO2). This corresponds to an annual increase of carbon stored in forests of about 0.3 to 0.4%. The ability of these reservoirs to store additional carbon ends when forests reach maturity - and thus their maxim um biomass levels - however. Currently, it is not possible to estimate when this takes place.

Climate-modelling calculations have shown that as a result of the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, increases in global mean temperature and rises in ocean levels must be expected, along with changes in precipitation distribution and shif ts in frequency of extreme weather events. Even if no reliable figures are available concerning the regional climate changes that must be expected, particularly endangered areas can be identified, on the basis of natural and anthropogenic systems' specifi c sensitivity to climate. For example, pronounced consequences of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect are to be expected in the earth's semiarid regions, changes which, in particular, could lead to increases in migratory movements.

In Germany, it is mainly natural and near-natural ecosystems that seem threatened, when the country's geographic and climatic conditions are considered. Effects on water resource management and on agriculture and forestry, which are particularly sensit ive to climatic influences, have a more direct influence on human living conditions. Considerable uncertainty prevails concerning further economic and social effects of climate change. This uncertainty applies to economic activities (including industry an d tourism) and to quality of human life (health, food, housing, etc.)

If only for the reason that a considerable time lag can occur between greenhouse-gas emissions and the effects of climate change, precaution demands that we act, in our own interest and in the interest of future generations - even if not all questions concerning the complex scientific interrelationships, the extent and, especially, the effects of climate change, have been answered. The Federal Government considers measures for reducing emissions of climate-relevant gases to have priority. It is also emphasising research into the consequences of climate change, however, in order to develop effective strategies for adaptation to the effects of such change, which cannot be ruled out, in spite of a wide range of efforts to reduce emissions of greenhou se gases.

Programme of measures to reduce emissions of climate-relevant gases and for binding them in reservoirs and by sinks. The Federal Government acted early to develop a comprehensive national climate-protection strategy. The CO2 -reduction programme is the heart of this strategy. In light of the world-wide discussion concerning the additional, anthropogenic greenhouse effect, and the resulting climate change and effects, the Federal Government is aiming to respond to this global challenge with a n ambitious goal for reducing energy-related CO2 emissions. It has prepared a comprehensive reduction concept whose measures are currently being implemented on a step-by-step basis.

By means of resolutions of 13 June, 1990, 7 November, 1990 and 11 December, 1991, the Federal Cabinet approved a comprehensive CO2 -reduction programme. Its aim in this connection is to reduce CO2 emissions by 25% to 30% by the ye ar 2005, in relation to the emissions volume in 1987. The Federal Government is aware of the difficulty of achieving this, a difficulty that is also due to the changed global framework. Reduction of other climate-relevant emissions - such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide ( NO22), nitrogen oxides (NOx ), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane-free volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) - is also taken into account in the national climate-protection strategy.

Overall, the Federal Government is aiming to achieve a reduction of all climate-relevant emissions - expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents - on an order of 50% by the year 2005 - in relation to 1987 levels. With its resolutions to date, the Federal Government has approved a broad catalogue of measures for exploiting the existing potential for reducing emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the following areas:

- Private households and small consumers,

- Traffic and transport,

- Industry,

- The energy industry,

- The waste-management sector,

- Agriculture and forestry.

In addition to economic instruments, which have a special role in the CO2 -reduction programme, climate-protection instruments include regulatory requirements, information and consultation programmes and education and training. With its reso lution of 13 June, 1990, the Federal Cabinet established a CO2 -reduction Interministerial Working Group (IWG), under the leadership of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. At the same time, the Cabi net set up working groups, within the CO2 -reduction IWG framework, on the following topic areas:

- Energy supply (management: Federal Ministry of Economics),

- Traffic and transport (management: Federal Ministry of Transport),

- Buildings and structures (management: Federal Ministry for Regional Planning, Building and Urban Development),

- New technologies (management: Federal Ministry for Research and Technology),

- CO2 reduction in the areas of agriculture and forestry, including CO2 sinks (management: Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry).

In addition to the above-named ministries, the working group comprises representatives of the Federal Chancellery, of the Federal Foreign Office and of the federal ministries of Finance; of Labour and Social Affairs; of Economic Cooperation and Develop ment; of Defence; and of Education and Science. In the summer of 1994, the CO2 -reduction IWG will present its 3rd report to the Federal Cabinet; the findings it contains have been taken into account in the present report.

The present report contains a very comprehensive catalogue of measures. On the one hand, this catalogue provides an overview of approved and implemented measures to date; on the other, it lists measures that are currently being approved by the appropri ate decision-making bodies, or whose approval is currently being prepared or is planned. This very comprehensive catalogue of measures is aimed both at the energy-supply sector and at all energy-consuming sectors. It comprises the areas of private househo lds and small consumers, traffic and transport, industry, the energy industry, the waste-management industry and agriculture and forestry. In addition to economic instruments, the range of climate-protection tools includes regulatory requirements, researc h and technology development, information and consultation programmes and education and training.

An important factor in the success of climate-protection policy in Germany will be whether all those involved truly cooperate. The Federal Government alone will not be able to locally implement such an intensive programme - a programme that affects eco nomic and social structures. For this reason, the climate-protection strategy must be diffused to all the various levels, and to each individual involved. The Federal Government is of the opinion that the effort to accomplish this, which has been underway since 1990, has been extremely successful.

Gradually, the Länder are also preparing their own Land-specific climate-protection programmes. An important reason why such programmes must be developed and implemented is that in many areas the Länder have executive competency. Since 1990, many communities have begun developing and implementing community CO2 -reduction concepts, often on the basis of existing energy-supply concepts. To date, far more than 100 such concepts have been developed. Increasingly, head community associa tions are giving greater attention to this topic. In addition, communities are organising themselves, on the European level, into an international climate-protection alliance. This alliance has the extremely ambitious goal of reducing CO2 emiss ions in its member communities by 50% by the year 2010, in relation to 1987 levels.

In November 1991, central German industry associations presented a paper describing an initiative for world-wide precautionary measures to protect climate. In this paper, German industry emphasises that it is willing to do its part to combat the greenh ouse effect. The paper also makes clear that industry considers self-commitment declarations and compensation solutions to be effective climate-protection instruments. Since 1992, the Federal Government has been conducting intensive discussions with indus trial representatives concerning the specific details of this initiative paper.

Other groups that have been very intensively discussing climate protection include unions, environmental protection associations, consumer organisations, churches and other groups that play an important role in society. The aim of these initiatives is to make it clear to each person that he or she can make a decisive contribution to combatting the global greenhouse effect.

Emissions scenarios

The development of energy-related and non-energy-related emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide ( NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane-free volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) until the year 2005 was esti mated. For the case of energy-related emissions, two existing studies were used as a basis that do not conform completely with the CO2 -reduction programme. For the non-energy-related emissions, the current framework is used as the basis for fo recasts.

Research and systematic observation

Research into climate systems, and into the consequences of climate change, is among the emphases of German environmental research. Climate-system research is seeking to obtain reliable statements concerning the development of global climate and, espec ially, concerning development of regional climate. The purpose of research into the consequences of climate change is to estimate the possible effects of climate change. As part of such research, the interactions between climate and sensitive natural and civilisation-built systems are being studied.

The Federal Government is also sponsoring research into means of easing the effects of climate change. These efforts are aimed at providing the necessary action-oriented knowledge, and technology, in the areas of environmental protection and energy, fo r reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions. They are also focused on identifying options for action to deal with the effects of climate change. Table II (especially in its "New Technologies" section) lists specific measures for supporting research into means of easing the effects of climate change. But more than scientific and technological solutions to environmental problems are now required, if environmental problems are to be permanently solved; for this reason, overall efforts are increasingly also incor porating social and economic approaches.

The Federal Republic of Germany's research programmes have been incorporated into major international programmes such as the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme. The comprehensive measurement program mes that are also being carried out through international cooperation (such as within the Global Atmosphere Watch or the establishment of the Global Climate Observing System) provide an important basis for assessing the current state of the climate system and of anthropogenic influences on it. Data centres and databases are currently being established that will provide relevant collected data to the public in a suitable form.

Training, education and public awareness

Because global climate change is a long-term process, education, training and promotion of public awareness are of central importance. The entire population has a responsibility to translate its high level of environmental awareness into an appropriate willingness to act and cooperate in avoiding future environmental damage. This is why the Federal Government and the Länder are conducting a campaign of intensive environmental information. The topic of environmental protection has been solidly inte grated into school education, which lies within the responsibility of the Länder. A range of training and education measures focusing on climate protection has been carried out by the Federal Government and other sponsors. Table II lists individual m easures for providing environmental information, training and education.

International cooperation in the areas of technology and finance

The Federal Government strongly supports adherence to the guidelines set forth in the Rio Declaration, and is orienting its bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the area of development to the aim of implementing the Declaration's Agenda 21.

Bilateral cooperation

In the area of energy, a focus of the Federal Government's cooperation in the area of development, some 13 billion DM were provided between 1961 and 1993, within the framework of financial cooperation; some 1.1 billion DM were provided within the frame work of technological cooperation. Of this funding, some 2.5 billion DM were spent on hydroelectric power generation; some 500 million DM were spend on other renewable energies. In addition, the Federal Government spends 300 million DM annually in helping other countries conserve their tropical rain forests. The Federal Government is also supporting developing countries' measures to reduce methane emissions in connection with the keeping of livestock, as well as studies in such countries on reducing methane and laughing gas emissions in rice cultivation. In 1992, the Federal Government also created a consultancy assistance programme for central and eastern European countries. By 1993, over 150 projects in the area of environmental protection had been carried out within this programme. In a ddition, some 41 million DM was spent in 1992 and 1993 on selected environmental-protection projects in central and eastern Europe. In 1992, the Federal Government made available 5 million DM in special funding; these funds are being used to help some 10 developing countries prepare their national reports.

Multilateral cooperation

In a pilot phase lasting from 1991 to 1993, and which was supported with approx. 1 billion DM worth of special-draft loans (central fund plus co-financing), the Federal Republic of Germany paid 147 million US$ into the central fund of the Global Enviro nmental Facility (GEF). For the period lasting from mid-1994 to mid-1997, the Federal Republic of Germany has committed itself to payment of 240 million US$ (ca. 12% of the total volume of some 2 billion US$) into this fund. The Federal Republic of German y strongly supports taking an internationally coordinated approach. It is cooperating within the European Union (EU) and in multilateral government organisations such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the International E nergy Agency (IEA), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the UN's Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and it is making substantial contribu tions to these organisations' initiatives in the area of climate policy.

The Federal Government took an active role in preparing the resolutions of the EU's Joint Environmental and Energy Council of 29 October, 1990, 13 December, 1991 and June 1992, as well as the various Council resolutions concerning the European Union's CO2 -reduction strategy. Within the EU framework, it continues to support passage of an effective joint CO2 -reduction strategy. The European Commission's proposal for a Council directive on the introduction of a tax on CO2 emissions and energy, dated 4 June, 1992, is a focus of current discussion. The Council is still deliberating intensively on this proposal. The Federal Government considers the introduction of an (at least) EU-wide CO2 /energy tax, neutral wi th regard to competition and total tax-revenue volume, to be a necessary instrument for achieving goals in this area - both national and European goals. During its EU presidency, the Federal Government continues to pursue the issue of the above-mentioned CO2 /energy tax.


The Federal Government plans to concentrate its future work within the Interministerial Working Group on CO2 reduction on the following areas of action:

- Reduction of CO2 emissions,

- Reduction of methane emissions (CH4) from energy production, energy transport, energy distribution and energy use; from agriculture; from waste treatment; and from wastewater treatment,

- Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions (NO),

- Reduction of the precursor substances of tropospheric ozone, i.e. of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), methane-free volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and

- Reduction of emissions of other greenhouse gases (including CF4 and C2F6).

The results achieved to date, in sum, have noticeably reduced Germany's share of world-wide greenhouse-gas emissions. The aim of the Federal Government's climate-protection programme is to reduce Germany's share of anthropogenic emissions by about half , by the year 2005 - based on 1987 levels. World-wide, these efforts are without parallel, and the Federal Government expects that other countries will follow Germany's example. The Federal Government will continue to take an active role in implementing national and EU-wide climate-prot ection strategies, and in efforts to achieve a globally coordinated strategy for combatting the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. This applies especially to implementation and promotion of further development of the Framework Convention on Climate Change.


19 December 1994

Original: ENGLISH

In accordance with decision 9/2 of the Committee, the interim secretariat is to make available, in the official languages of the United Nations, the executive summaries of the national communications submitted by Annex I Parties. Copies of the German n ational communication can be obtained from:

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation & Nuclear Safety

Section GII1

P.O. Box 120629

53048 Bonn - Germany

Fax: (49-228)305-3337

Related Sites:

Documents of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate


As most of its countries transform to market economies, the Europe and Central Asia region's environment has improved. Pollution is declining, and air, water and soil quality is improving. Lead and heavy metal dust levels have decreased in response to lower outputs and new emissions control measures. Particulate and sulfur dioxide emissions from large stationary sources have decreased through industrial decline and price adjustments in the power and metallurgy sectors. Nitrates, heavy metals and toxic chemicals in drinking water have been reduced, and waste water collection and treatment has improved in areas like the Baltic and Black Seas. But environmental progress has been mixed. In many areas, air quality improvements appear to be less than proport ional to the fall of total emissions. Even though particulate emissions from large sources have decreased substantially in some areas, increased emissions from smaller sources like cars, small boilers, households and new commercial establishments have mea nt that average exposure has remained almost unchanged. Bacteriological contamination risk remains high in drinking water, and may even increase in places with deteriorating water utility operation and maintenance.

Countries in the region with advanced market reforms are more likely than less reformed economies to keep pollution down as they increase their GDP and industrial production. Phasing out subsidies and eliminating market distortions provide a better foundation for efficient natural resource use and sustainable environmental improvements. But even countries successfully transforming to market economies need to complement their reform measures with eff ective environmental policies and institutional frameworks.

Proper environmental management systems need to be developed with clear sets of environmental priorities, established within the financial constraints of the transition process. Since the region's countries are embarking on transition strategies which vary in objectives, speed of transformation, and emerging partnerships, they need access to a variety of instruments and institutional and investment support. The region's most important new challe nge is to combine economic growth and recovery with environmentally sustainable improvements.

"Unless environmental concerns are addressed head-on during the economic and enterprise transition in the Region, there is a serious risk that the recent environmental gains will be lost as growth resumes."

Johannes Linn, Vice President, ECA.

Meeting the Challenge

Since the early 1990s, the Bank has helped the region's countries establish realistic regional and national targets for environmental improvements. At a regional level, the Bank has contributed to developing and implementing the Environmental Action Programme (EAP) for Central and Eastern Europe. Nationally, the Bank supported 14 countries as they p repared national environmental action plans (NEAPs) or environmental strategies. Programs have also been launched in partnership with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, and in collaboration with the international Task Force for the Implementation of the EAP, the WHO and NGOs. In the past year, the Bank has sought to support the region's countries by investing in environm ental projects with strong institutional development components, increasing projects with environmental components in the investment portfolio, and enhancing countries' capacity to address environmental issues beyond national boundaries.

The Environmental Project Portfolio Currently, the Bank's environmental portfolio in the region consists of 22 projects (in addition to 19 GEF and 4 MP projects), in Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Czech Republic, Turkey and Slovenia. The portfolio's pollution and urban environmental management projects deal with oil spill problems, urban air pollution abatement, and improving water and sanitation. The natural resources/rural environmental management projects deal with land-based sources of pollution affecting the Bal tic Sea, and forest management for watershed protection or biodiversity conservation. Institution building projects are designed to develop natural resources management capacity, and energy projects promote energy efficiency or the use of renewables. The total Bank support for these projects is almost $2.2 billion out of a total project cost of $4.8 billion.

In Lithuania, the Siauliai Environment Project, the seventh Bank pollution project for the Baltic Sea region, has a water and wastewater improvement and an environmental management component, and the Bank/GEF-supported Klaipeda Geo thermal Demonstratio n Project will provide technical assistance and investment for construction of a geothermal demonstration plant to provide energy for a district heating system. The plant will bring about reductions of 56,000 tons of CO2 and 1,200 tons of SO2 annually, and will demonstrate the value of developing indigenous geothermal energy resources.

The Slovenia Environment Project is designed to reduce particulate and sulfur dioxide emissions in some of the country's most heavily polluted cities. The project involves institutional strengthening and an environmental management scheme for the Soca Valley. An Air Pollution Abatement Fund (APAF) will be established as a trust fund managed by the Slovenian Ecofund to finance conversion from coal to cleaner fuels or district heating systems. Ultimately, the APAF will become a self-sustaining revolving loan fund for similar projects in other Slovenian polluted cities.

Environmental Components in the Investment Portfolio

In this past fiscal year, Bank-approved projects in the region have components which address environmental quality and management. These components serve to identify and create measures to mitigate possible negative environmental consequences, fully ca pture potential environmental benefits, and create an institutional base to stimulate the linking of environmental objectives with sectoral development.

Poland's Bielsko-Biala Water and Wastewater Project is designed to support rehabilitation and improved management of the country's water and wastewater sector, as are similar projects in Wroslaw, Krakow, Bydgoszcz, and Warsaw. The project aims to impro ve the Biala and Vistula Rivers' environmental quality by reducing pollution and industrial waste discharges. The project initiates combined sewer overflow control programs, introduces a more effective monitoring program for industrial waste discharges, a nd institutes a technical assistance and an institutional strengthening program.

In Kazakhstan, the Irrigation and Drainage Improvement Project will improve existing drainage technology and reduce water losses, waterlogging and salinity problems, and help reduce pesticide use through farmer training and information dissemination. T he project will also help strengthen legislative, monitoring and enforcement capacities in the Ministry of Ecology and Bioresources.

In the Estonia Agriculture Project, a land use management component helps the Ministry of Environment prepare a wetlands management strategy in cooperation with the World Wide Fund for Nature, finances laboratory equipment for environmental monitoring, and funds environmental studies for future drainage investments.

Two energy sector projects in Moldova and Romania have included measures to improve efficiency in power production, reduce leaks and waste, and curb air pollution. The Moldova Energy Project would also upgrade financial management systems to reduce non -technical losses, facilitate better financial decision-making and induce subsequent sector reforms. The Romania Power Sector Rehabilitation Project envisages technical and efficiency measures which would result in significant reductions in NOx, SO2 and particulate emissions.

The project would also provide technical assistance for institutional strengthening in environmental management, and health and safety improvements. The tendency to incorporate environmental concerns is noticeable not only in sectoral lending, but also in structural adjustment operations. Of the 41 structural adjustment operations in the region since 1990, including 8 this fiscal year, 21 contain energy pricing conditions. Regional policy work and research undertaken by the Bank has also contributed to integrating environmental concerns and management. New policy reviews and programs, such as the Gas Sector Review for Poland, Coal Sector Review for Ukraine, Oil and Gas Issues Study for Uzbekistan, Agricultural Sector Review for Georgia, Transport Secto r Review for Kazakhstan, and Energy Sector Review for Macedonia, are likely to contribute positively to closer coordination of environmental and economic development objectives.

Beyond National Boundaries

Many of the region's national agendas address environmental concerns beyond their boundaries through regional programs and support from the GEF.

The Bank has participated in collaborative efforts to improve the Baltic, Black, Aral and Caspian Seas, and the Danube River Basin. Through the Baltic and Black Sea Environmental Programs, the Bank has moved quickly from regional problem identification and priority-setting to project preparation and financing investments. The Baltic Sea Environmental Program has focused on preventative and restorative actions to protect the sea based on 130 identified 'hot spots,' and has recommended policy and legislative reforms and supported institutional strengthening, research, and public environmental education. The Black Sea Environmental Program has analyzed transboundary and local environmental issues, identified urgent investment actions and supported the Urgent Investment Portfolio, facilitated multi-sector coordination, and provided technical assistance for local institutional capacity-buildi ng. Through the program's integrated coastal zone management and biodiversity components, the Bank has strengthened institutional capacity through training, establishing activity centers, expanding information networks, and supporting national reports and pilot projects.

In the Environmental Management of the Danube River Basin Project, the Bank was involved in agricultural studies in Moldova, pre-investment work for the Budapest wastewater treatment project, and a public awareness campaign for the Bucharest water supp ly project.

Seven Bank/GEF projects were approved in the region this past year. Projects in Bulgaria, Hungary, Russian Federation and Slovenia addressing ozone depleting substances (ODS) phaseout will collectively eliminate more than 4500 metric tons of Ozone Depl eting Potential (ODP) annually. The Klaipeda Geothermal Demonstration Project described above is linked to greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. and the Russia Greenhouse Gas Reduction Project will determine the principal sources of GHG emissions from natural gas production, transport and use, and the most cost effective options for their reduction.

The Russia Biodiversity ConservationñPriority Response Program aims to establish a national biodiversity conservation strategy, provide institutional support and technical assistance to critical protected areas, and support integrated natural resources management in the Lake Baikal region.

The Challenges Ahead

Bank projects in the region are designed to promote long-term solutions through sustainable policy changes, financing mechanisms and institutional capacity-building. Projects are also designed to have a demonstration effect. In the narrow view, a project is successful if it achieves specific environmental objectives, such as improved air, water and soil quality. In the broader view, success must be measured by the project's value and replicability as a model for future activities. The Bank is committed to supporting both perspectives.

Financing sources are diversifying in ECA'S reforming economies, and the emerging private sector is becoming the main source of growth, income, and employment. But the pollution potential is increasing as private firms, primarily small and medium-size ones, enter the market, and they require different environmental standards and enforcement policies than the large, state-owned enterprises in the old centrally-planned economies. The Bank can help the central and local environmental authorities develop a dequate policies for the dynamic new private sector. The shift from point to non-point sources of airborne emissions also represents a challenge. As private car ownership and road transport increases and certain heavy industry decreases, vehicular traffic is becoming the main source of lead pollution in urban areas. The issue goes beyond simple numbers of automobiles: it affects policies and broader trends in fuel substitution, transport, and shipping. Effective policies and incentives must be implemented to address these complex, emerging challenges. Some countries in the region, such as the Slovak Republic, have instituted policy and tax changes in conjunction with targeted investments to address the problem of airborne lead emissions. Others have asked the Bank for technical and investment assistance.

The regional economic picture is changing rapidly. Some countries in Central and Eastern Europe are facing the immediate challenge of European Union accession; others are undertaking major structural changes and building new trade and economic zones. T he Bank must respond appropriately to each of these differentiated needs. For the accession countries, the Bank can be instrumental in proposing least-cost strategies for meeting the EU's environmental requirements and financing parts of the public invest ment programs. For the majority of the former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, outside of the immediate EU expansion, the Bank can mobilize support for economic recovery and and environmental management improvements.

This article was written by Kristalina Georgieva and the ECA/MNA Technical Department's Environment Division (EMTEN), (202) 473-0397, Fax (202) 477-0711.

Environment Matters ENV Home Environment Department's

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3.6 Russian Environmental Law


Over the last few decades, Asia has outperformed the rest of the world in its rate of economic growth. The region's countries have made significant advances in alleviating poverty and improving living standards. As home to half the world's people, this is a significant achievement. But the region's emphasis on economic growth without equal attention to the environment has resulted in widespread environmental damage. The costs of air and water pollution and soil degradation are large even in simple economic terms. The region's costs from environmental degradation are above 5% of annual GDP, and in China may be as high as 10%. The poor suffer most from the consequences of environmental neglect. Asian countries are learning that the trade-offs between effective enviro nmental action and economic growth have changed.

Economic progress around the world is proving to be beneficial for the environment as it generates resources for better environmental protection and promotes new and environmentally efficient technologies. Better education and higher incomes are crucia l to reducing environmental damage. In spite of these new possibilities, however, Asia's most vexing environmental problems continue to intensify:

Pollution: As the urban population in Asia grows, urban degradation is increasing. Industrial pollution is growing even more rapidly than economic growth. Water pollution is pervasive, contaminating surface water and groundwater in urban and industrial areas. Levels of air pollution are high in Asia's megacities and many second-tier cities whose resident use coal for cooking and winter heat. The economic cost of air pollution health damages is an estimated $1 billion a year in Bangkok, Jakarta and othe r Asian cities.

Natural Resources Degradation: Widespread soil degradation, deforestation, wetland conversion, and biodiversity loss pose region-wide resource management and use problems. Rural soil degradation in highly populated countries like Pakistan, India, Bangl adesh and China has a measurable impact on agriculture. Deforestation is depleting the national wealth of forest-rich countries like Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

Meeting the Challenges To address these problems, Asian countries are strengthening their environmental institutions, regulations and strategies, and committing more resources. But an estimated additional $30 to $40 billion a year will be needed by the year 2000. The private sector's participation has become essential. This calls for policy and pricing reform to improve the rate of return on infrastructure investments, improving the private sector's access to information, government incentives, aggress ive regulation enforcement, and environmental education to create wider participation in the management process.

The Bank has helped Asia meet these challenges on three fronts this past year: pollution and resource management investments; institutional strengthening through capacity building; and policy analysis, dialogue, and reform, in industrial pollution cont rol and energy and water resource pricing.

The Environmental Project Portfolio

This last fiscal year, Bank-supported environmental projects in the two Asia Regions grew from 45 to 53 (in addition to 8 GEF and 15 MP projects) in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka and T hailand. The balance between the pollution and natural resource management projects in the two regions reflects their different stages of development. More than half of East Asia's 29 environment projects target pollution and urban environmental managemen t (10 in China alone), compared to only 6 in South Asia (5 in India); South Asia has a much greater number of natural resource management or rural environment management projects (16 of 24 projects in South Asia) than East Asia, which has 9. There are six institution building projects (4 in East Asia and 2 in South Asia). The Bank's contribution to these projects is $3 billion out of a total cost of $8.8 billion in East Asia and $1.7 billion out of $2.6 billion in South Asia.

China, India and Indonesia were the focus of new environmental lending this past fiscal year.

China: This year, the Hubei Urban Environmental Protection, Yunnan Environment, Second Shanghai Sewerage, and Chongqing Industrial Reform and Pollution Control Projects were approved, to address urban air and water pollution. These four projects work w ith municipal and provincial authorities to develop more effective enforcement of environmental regulations, manage demand for water and other resources, and finance investments to improve air and water quality.

The Bank continued its assistance to China's National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) in national environmental policy, and to the Chinese Academy of Sciences in coordination of ecological research. The Bank has supported policy dialogue on indu strial pollution control, and energy and water pricing. Water and wastewater tariff reforms are beginning to be implemented. Supervision continued on three natural resources projects approved in FY94, and on one of the world's largest dams, Ertan, which h as a major environmental management component.

India: Within the country's economic adjustment framework, the Bank continues to seek opportunities to introduce environmentally sound policies. Three projects were approved this year. The Coal Environment and Social Mitigation Project is designed to i mprove environmental and social aspects of Coal India's new mining investments, operations, land rehabilitation, and resettlement of indigenous and other people; the Bombay Sewage Disposal Project emphasizes new investment in sewage collection, disposal i nfrastructure and financial sustainability while strengthening the municipal authority's environmental management capacity; and the Hydrology Project targets institutional and physical needs for improved water resource management.Activities in India also included a line of credit for Infrastructure Lending and Financial Services (ILFS), an intermediary which will invest in water and sanitation systems and other infrastructure operations to provide environmental and human health improvements. Their Environ mental and Social Assessment Framework is being applied to other Indian private sector infrastructure development projects.

Indonesia: The Kerinci-Seblat Biodiversity Integrated Conservationand Development Project was approved this fiscal year. This Bank/GEF project will safeguard the Kerinci-Seblat National Park by integrating park management and conservation with local an d regional development, with collaborative links between buffer zone communities, local NGOs and government. This approach is characteristic of the Bank's Biodiversity Assistance Strategy.

The Bank-supported PROPER, a system that publicly rates firms on their environmental performance, invites public participation in industrial pollution control efforts by individual firms. Discussions are now underway in the Philippines to introduce a s imilar system. Work also continued in Asia on policy dialogue and priority-setting:

Policy Dialogue: In Vietnam, the Bank focused on the industrialization strategy's environmental implications and technical assistance to help the Government develop enforcement standards and mechanisms. In Thailand, work continues to refine the health impacts of Bangkok's air pollution, and to calculate cost-effective measures to allow the city to attain its targets at the least cost. In Laos and Cambodia, deforestation is receiving attention to reform the policy and institutional framework for forest management.

Priority-Setting: Several South Asia projects are addressing environmental priority-setting and institutional capacity building. In Bangladesh, work is underway to implement the National Environmental Management Action Plan. In Sri Lanka, a Bank review of the 1996-99 Public Investment Program and Core Investment Program identified funding needs in the NEAP. Efforts are underway to prepare a biodiversity action plan and investment project for conserving medicinal plants. In Pakistan, two studies address ed national environmental priorities, institutions, and policies. In addition, four projects currently cover forestry and land resource management. As part of a national biodiversity strategy, efforts are underway to improve participatory management in a number of protected areas.

Environmental Components in the Investment Portfolio Environmental considerations are also integral to Bank-supported projects in agriculture, energy, land management, transport, water resource, and urban sectors. The extent to which projects incorpora te environmental components is a measure of how well environmental concerns are addressed by more traditionalóand powerfulógovernment agencies.

Examples include: land management in Bangladesh coastal areas, Laos, Shaanxi province and Gansu Hexi Corridor in China, and Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia; fuel and technology upgrading in large thermal power projects like Orissa Power Sector Re structuring Project in India, Henan (Quinbei) Thermal Power Project in China, Mongolia Coal Project, and Vietnam Power Development Project; improved environmental management of highway construction in China's Shanghai-Zhejiang Project, and highway environmental assessment procedures and air quality monitoring in Thailand; improved water resource management in India's Uttar Pradesh Rural Water Supply Project, and improved urban environmental services, such as the Second East Java Urban Development Project and the Manila Second Sewerage Project.

Beyond National Boundaries This fiscal year, a new strategy, the South Asia Sub-Regional Initiative, was initiated to look at South Asia's regional inter-country potential for sustainable development, particularly in the 'development triangle' spanning Nepal, eastern India, Bangladesh and Bhutan. Over half the 500 million people in this triangle live below the poverty line, on less than $1 a day. Social indicators such as literacy and infant mortality are among the most dismal in the world.

"Poor countries cannot afford to 'grow now and clean up later;' environmental sustainability has to be integrated in the design of policies and programs at both the macro and the sectoral level."

Joseph Wood, Vice President, South Asia

This article was written by Ramesh Ramankutty and Carter Brandon, both of the Asia Region Technical Department's Environment and Natural Resource Division (ASTEN).

Ramesh Ramankutty (202)458-2725, Carter Brandon (202)458-2752, Fax (202)522-1664.

Environment Matters ENV Home Environment Department's ESD

4.0 Comparison among the various environmental international standards, legislation, etc.

4.1 Decision Support System for Industrial Pollution Control with Community Participation

The Decision Support System for Industrial Pollution Control (DSS/IPC), was developed to serve a variety of operational and policy research needs of the environmental and industrial development community in the World Bank, in developing countries and e lsewhere. The software package which makes up the DSS/IPC can be used as a tool to organize information; to educate both the public and environmental administrators about the key issues in environmental management; and, to lend analytical support to policy makers and managers in formulating policy options and control measures to curb industrial pollution at least cost to soc iety, as well as to understand the possible environmental and economic consequences of the alternatives chosen.

Policy makers, environmental administrators and non-government groups, either from the scientific, business, or from the community at large need to answer the same questions:

(i) Which are the regions most susceptible to environmental pollution damage, or where are the most probable concentrations of pollution, given some preliminary comparative analysis of pollution loads; in other words, where are the pollution "hot-spots"?

(ii) In any one area, what are the most hazardous pollutants for the habitat; and,

(iii) What is the cost effective, economically feasible option to control the most hazardous pollutants; and, what are the control strategies available, given:

* the current state of the art in pollution control technologies, both in the availability of new processes and of end of the pipe controls?

* the degree of market concentration, or the number of firms operating in the highest contributing sectors to the most hazardous pollutants,

* the cost structure, or the profitability of the industry,

* the availability of budgetary resources to implement pollution control measures; and,

* the level of risk faced by the community exposed to the most hazardous pollutants and the affected community risk preference behaviour.

The need to quantify the extent of the problem, to set priorities on which issues to approach first, and to make policies transparent to the diverse interest groups affected by either the problem, or the possible solution to these issues has triggered the effort to develop the DSS/IPC.

The system comprises functional modules which can be grouped according to their outputs into four major sectors: (1) an inventory of the pollution loads geographically distributed by media of discharge; (2) evaluation of the resulting ambient pollution concentrations; (3) the identification of priority pollutants, their main industrial contributors, and the available control measures and technologies; and, (4) the costs of alternative control measures and technologies, by type of pollutant and by indus trial sectors and processes generating the pollution, along with the subset of efficient solutions of pollution control measures per process applied, and across polluting sectors.

In support of the analysis, the DSS/IPC software package includes the following data bases:

1. emission factors by media of discharge, of the most often encountered processes used in energy production, industry, agriculture and public services, as well as of mobile ources in transportation;

2. a comprehensive review of the most important air and water pollutants for which monographs are presented, and for which the estimated concentrations of no concern have been evaluated; and,

3. a list of the most commonly encountered pollution control measures and technologies available in each industrial sector, their potential emission reduction effect, and the standardized costs associated with adopting the control measures.

The DSS/IPC software package, which was made available for download at its testing stage, is currently being upgraded and will be restored to the WorldWide Web as soon as a new version is released.

Questions or inquiries should be directed to Kseniya Lvovsky at KLvovsky@WORLDBANK.ORG.

4.2 ISO-14000

ISO 14000 is a set of international standards for improving the environmental performance of organizations. It includes the new standard for environmental management systems (EMS) called ISO 14001. This standard was published October1, 1996, so it is new on the international scene. Some countries and companies are quickly embracing it, while others, including the United States and most American companies, are waiting to see if it becomes a requirement for doing international business and if there are benefits to adopting it. Many American companies already have EMSs that may be different than ISO 14000, so their reluctance is understandable since they have invested in their existing systems. For those companies who have no system, their reluctance is also understandable, since they have no experience with the benefits such a system can provide.

For more information visit:


5.1 Stationary Source Technologies

* Non-toxic alternative to dry cleaning

* Photovoltaic roof shingles

* Prototype residential fuel cells

* Non-toxic alternative to dry cleaning

AQMD is co-sponsoring a demonstration of wet cleaning, a commercial cleaning process that uses water instead of chemicals to clean everything from wool sweaters to silk blouses. Wet cleaning could help reduce toxic air pollution as well as consumers' p ersonal exposure to toxic chemicals.

Contact: Ranji George at (909) 396-3255

[Mail] ( )

* Photovoltaic roof shingles

Photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight to electricity can be manufactured directly into roofing shingles, creating a more aesthetic and maintenance-free form of rooftop solar cells. AQMD, in cooperation with a community redevelopment agency and a coa lition of more than 300 church and community groups, is demonstrating the technology by placing solar roof shingles on 12 homes in Compton.

Contact: Ranji George at (909) 396-3255

[Mail] ( )

* Prototype residential fuel cells Imagine your home being heated and powered by its own pollution-free fuel cell, small enough to fit in a closet. AQMD and a non-profit consortium of gas and electric utilities are sponsoring the first field tests of r esidential fuel cells to determine whether the zero-emissions technology is practical for individual homes.

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Ranji George at (909) 396-3255

[Mail] ( )


5.2 Alternative Fuels, Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

* Long-range natural gas vans

* Clean-fueled rental vehicles at Southland airports

* Clean transportation corridor

* CNG engines in heavy-duty trucks

* Retrofit of transit bus to CNG

* Long-range natural gas vans

A Long Beach firm has developed a special van chassis that holds four large natural gas tanks, giving the vehicle a range of more than 350 miles. The extended range is comparable to that of a gasoline-powered van, making it more commercially viable.

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by

AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Mike Bogdanoff at (909) 396-3254

[Mail] ( )

* Clean-fueled rental vehicles at Southland airports

The Hertz Corp. plans to include more than 100 methanol- and compressed natural gas-powered vehicles in its rental fleet at the Palm Springs airport. The project will help demonstrate the viability of alternative fuels to rental companies and consumers .

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Cindy Sullivan at AQMD at (909) 396-3249

[Mail] ( )

* Clean transportation corridor

Air quality planners are designing a "clean transportation corridor" that would establish a refueling network for alternative-fueled, long-haul trucks between California, Arizona, Nevada and Utah. Heavy-duty trucks represent only 4% of the vehicle popu lation in California, but are expected to contribute nearly 50 percent of the on-road nitrogen oxide and more than 80 percent of the on-road particulate matter pollution by the year 2010.

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by

AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Cindy Sullivan at AQMD at (909) 396-3249

[Mail] ( )

* CNG engines in heavy-duty trucks

Orange County's sanitation district will operate 10 trucks powered by compressed natural gas. Each truck will make two, 300-mile round trips daily from Fountain Valley to Kern County. In addition, a trucking firm operating five liquid natural gas-power ed trucks, plans to run them on a Los Angeles-Salt Lake City-Sacramento-Los Angeles route.

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Cindy Sullivan at AQMD at (909) 396-3249

[Mail] ( )

* Retrofit of transit bus to CNG

The Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority is considering converting its fleet of 333 methanol-fueled buses back to diesel due to the higher operating cost of methanol. AQMD is participating in a project to convert one of MTA's methanol buses to co mpressed natural gas to evaluate it as an alternative to diesel.

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by

AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Cindy Sullivan at AQMD at (909) 396-3249

[Mail] ( )

URL: < a href=>

* Electric vehicle (EV) range extender

How do you drive from Los Angeles to Las Vegas in an electric vehicle? Engineers are designing an EV range extender to make that possible. The range extender is a closely mounted trailer containing an ultra-low-emission gasoline- or propane-powered mot orcycle engine driving an alternator to produce electricity for the vehicle.

Contact: Mike Bogdanoff at (909) 396-3254

[Mail] ( )

* Electric bottled water delivery truck

Who says electric vehicles can't haul heavy loads? Sparkletts, a bottled water company, plans to develop an electric water delivery truck to slash smog-forming emissions from the vehicle's frequent stop-and-start routine.

For more information, read the AQMD Governing Board letter on this project,

or contact Mike Bogdanoff at AQMD at (909) 396-3254

[Mail] ( )

* Prototype economical, four-passenger electric vehicle

AQMD has joined the California Air Resources Board in a pilot project to build a four-passenger EV with a range of 100 miles. The program will also conduct a detailed analysis of the production requirements needed to build EVs in California.

For more information, see the June 14, 1996 and July 12, 1996 AQMD Governing Board letters on this project. Contact: Cindy Sullivan at AQMD at (909) 396-3249

[Mail] ( )

* Ballard fuel cell bus

With $1 million in support from AQMD, Ballard Power Systems Inc. of Vancouver, Canada, has developed a full-sized transit bus powered by a fuel cell that turns hydrogen into electricity. The bus emits absolutely no pollution -- only water droplets pure enough to drink!

For more information, see the AQMD Governing Board letter on this project,

or contact Jon Leonard at AQMD at (909) 396-3244.

[Mail] ( )

* Palm Desert fuel cell vehicles

Hydrogen produced by wind turbines and photovoltaic cells will power zero-emission fuel cell vehicles in a demonstration of a truly non-polluting form of transportation. The City of Palm Desert will demonstrate the five utility carts and three neighbor hood electric vehicles.

For more information, see the AQMD Governing Board letter on this project,

or contact Jon Leonard at AQMD at (909) 396-3244.

[Mail] ( )

* Fuel-cell powered passenger vehicle

A consortium of high-tech manufacturers is working to develop a fuel cell small enough for a passenger vehicle.

Contact: Jon Leonard at (909) 396-3244

[Mail] ( )

* Electrification of airport equipment

AQMD and United Airlines plan to convert a diesel tractor to electricity to push wide-body jets out from passenger terminals at Los Angeles International Airport.

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Mike Bogdanoff at (909) 396-3254

[Mail] ( )


* Air conditioner catalyst

AQMD is investigating whether home air conditioner units, treated with a special catalyst material, can "eat" outdoor smog. AQMD and Engelhart Corp. will conduct a pilot project at two homes in Glendora next spring to determine if specially treated out door air conditioner units lower ozone and carbon monoxide levels. If successful, the technology could offer an effective means for reducing ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

For more information, see the proposed control measure in the draft 1997 Air

Quality Management Plan.

Contact: Chris Abe at (909) 396-3154

[Mail] ( )

* Orange County remote sensing study

The use of remote sensing to identify and repair "high emitting" vehicles in an Orange County study has shown the technology to be a cost-effective tool for reducing pollution. Remote sensing uses a light beam to instantaneously measure tailpipe pollut ion levels.

Contact: Mike Nazemi at (909) 396-3187

[Mail] ( )

* Emissions catalyst for off-road equipment

Off-road engines such as those in construction equipment are currently not subject to any emission standards and are a signficant source of pollution. This project will evaluate whether three-way catalysts, used since the 1970s to dramatically reduce m otor vehicle emissions, can be applied to off-road equipment engines.

For more information, read the agenda item on this project approved by AQMD's Governing Board.

Contact: Mike Nazemi at (909) 396-3187

[Mail] ( )


6.1 CEM Specialties Inc.

CEM Specialties Inc., is a Canadian company providing systems, products and services for continuous monitoring of airemissions sources and industrial process gases and liquids.

Our philosophy is that no two measurement sources are alike, thus requiring application-specific engineering. Systems can be designed for process control (integrated with the process) or regulatory compliance (to meet permit conditions), or both. Compa ny expertise includes consulting, engineering, manufacturing, service and repairs, as well as on-site performance specification ("certification") testing. Complete product support is offered either on-site or in-house.

Capabilities at CEM Specialties Inc. include computer-aided design systems, electronics data communication, software supported project management and remote troubleshooting and diagnostics via modem. Our staff maintain constant awareness of pertinent i ssues such as source sampling and analysis, continuous emissions monitoring and regulatory compliance developments. We are a subscriber to US EPA's Emission Measurement Technical Information Center (EMTIC). Facilities include manufacturing, servicing, parts warehousing, engineering and administrative offices. The company actively participates in numerous professional and trade associations including AWMA, ISA, IPPSO, ASQC CEM Speicalties Inc. is actively working tow ards, and anticipates registration under, ISO 9001-94 (E) in mid-1997.

We are the Canadian representative for the following companies:

- Bodenseewerk/Perkin Elmer GmbH - multi-component analyzers

- M&C Products Analysentechnik GmbH - sampling system components

- Durag Industrie Elektronik GmbH - opacity & dust concentration monitors

- M&C Instruments B.V. - oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers

We are also the exclusive North American representative for:

- Bernath Atomic GmbH & Co. KG - total hydrocarbon analyzers

As an OEM company, we can supply monitoring systems integrated with any type, make or model of analyzer and sample transport and conditioning components. Quality assurance and quality control plans and performance certification guarantees are provided with "turn-key" system packages.

In addition, we can offer discrete single component analyzers or monitors for O2, CO, CO2, NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), opacity, particulate concentration, gas flow rate and others. Our sam ple system products and accessories line includes probes, pumps, sample lines and umbilicals, filters, valves, flowmeters and modular sample conditioning systems. All the above are available in heated or unheated versions, with options such as alarms or p rocess interlocks.

We are intimately familiar with all CEM applications and most of our products and systems can be made available in portable and transportable configurations.

With over 45 years of expertise in CEM and process measurement systems we are confident that we offer the best in customized systems and quality, application-specific products and related services. Our staff is supported by dedicated local sales and se rvice representatives in Eastern and Western Canada.

6.2 Clean Air Engineering

Since our 1972 inception, Clean Air Engineering (CAE) has developed into a worldwide provider of comprehensive testing services for air quality management, with four offices in the USA and three in Europe. We are recognized as a leader in our industry with a broad range of experience in a myriad of process and manufacturing applications. Our approach towards environmental issues goes beyond meeting compliance standards on a test-by-test basis. CAE's experienced engineering staff will align its talent w ith your needs to help you implement a strategic emissions program.

CAE provides the highest value products and services for air quality management. We pride ourselves in work teams that come to know our clients' industrial operations. This relationship helps provide the most value-added solutions to meet our client's needs.

More specifically, CAE can provide a wide range of services including the following:


Emissions Sampling

Performance Optimization and Guarantee Testing

Related Services


International Capabilities

Client Industries


The Clean Air Act Compliance Program


Federally Enforceable State Operating Permits (FESOPs)

The Permitting Process


Emissions Inventories

Control Device Specifications

VOC Capture and Removal Efficiency Testing

Continuing Compliance Plans

Test Methods


Trial Burn Planning and Testing



Analytical Facilities

Mobile Laboratory Facility


Field Testing Reports

Validation Criteria

Field Test Data

6.3 Cubix Corporation


In the early 1970's federal legislation was passed that led to the formation of a new analytical service industry: air pollution testing. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency enacted programs that required the testing of ambient air and new emissio n sources to demonstrate compliance with EPA standards and regulations. During this era, environmental engineering firms sprouted new air pollution groups from their water pollution testing and consulting activities.

In the late 1970's, Cubix Corporation founders Marc McDaniel and Rick Krenzke were employed as staff scientists with analytical laboratories and environmental engineering firms. In 1982 McDaniel and Krenzke laid plans for a new firm that would speciali ze in providing air pollution testing services as a primary business rather than a sideline. Putting their experience to work they formed Cubix Corporation, and developed the concept of a "mobile laboratory" equipped to do instrumental analyses instead of the labor intensive manual air pollution test methods that were then in common use. This innovative technical approach provided clients with immediate, on-site test results and eliminated the period of waiting for laboratory samples to be an alyzed (typically 3 to 20 days).

With a small capital investment in test instrumentation and equipment, the first mobile laboratory trailer was constructed and outfitted. Some test equipment had to be designed and custom fabricated; there were no commercial suppliers. A one-room offic e was set-up in a spare bedroom in McDaniel's home. Cubix initially targeted the testing of combustion sources: including furnaces, engines, turbines, boilers, and heaters. Client prospects were gleaned from the files of the state air pollution regulatory agencies and new relationships were forged with the emerging environmental programs of industries and governments.

Through the years, Cubix's quality work and expertise has become respected in the industry. Its analytical capabilities have gradually expanded to include a wide range of air pollution testing services for clients throughout the United States and abroa d. Currently 12 fully equipped mobile laboratories and a staff of 30 scientists and technicians serve an ever increasing client base from locations in Texas, Florida, and New Mexico.

Cubix's Testing Capabilities

Cubix Corporation remains focused on providing air pollution analytical testing services to industrial clients. The majority of work is related, directly or indirectly, to testing emissions from air pollution sources to determine compliance with govern ment regulations. Cubix testing services support the following activities of its clients:

Air pollution permit and regulation compliance tests

Emission control equipment engineering design

Combustion equipment engineering design

Continuous demonstration of compliance (periodic tests)

Emission performance guarantee verification

Diagnosis of process operation problems

Certification of emission monitoring systems

Ambient air quality surveys

Process material balance and emission inventory

Calibration of air quality dispersion models

Surveys for emissions of air toxics

Cubix's clientele represent a wide variety of industrial concerns over a broad geographic area. Principle clients include the following:

Integrated chemical plants

Synthetic/organic chemical manufacturers

Natural gas processors

Natural gas transmission pipe lines

Natural gas producers

Plastics manufacturers

Petroleum refineries

Plastic product manufacturers

Printing plants

Wood pulp, wood products, and paper industries

Carbon black plants

Lime manufacturers

Electric power plants

Semiconductor manufacturers

Cement plants

Gasoline loading terminals

Gas turbine/cogeneration plants

Approximately 85% of Cubix's current work is related to testing emission sources to demonstrate compliance with state and federal regulations. The balance of work is related to environmental engineering and applied research. The details of Cubix's test ing specialties and capabilities are listed in a series of application notes for each type of testing including:

Gas Combustion Turbines

Glycol Reboilers

Thermal Oxidizers

Combustion Sources (Boilers, Heaters, Furnaces)

Air Toxics

VOC Emissions

Bulk Fuel Loading Terminal Tests

Reciprocating Engines (Compliance and Std.Ex. #6)

Periodic Testing

Continuous Emission Monitor Audits and Tests

Sulfur Emission Testing

Particulate Matter Testing

Ambient Air Monitoring

Mobile Laboratory and Technical Approach

Emission tests by Cubix can serve both as a learning tool for the process engineers and an enforcement tool for air pollution regulatory agencies. Cubix's "mobile laboratory" service are entirely different from most commercial "fixed laboratories." Cub ix brings the "laboratory to the sample rather than the sample to the laboratory." This enables Cubix to provide its clients with on-site analyses with printed data summaries completed the same day. This capability can be an invaluable time-saver and spar e a client inadvertent air pollution emissions; Cubix's clients do not have to wait for results from a laboratory, and later try to reconstruct the problem. The diagnosis of complicated chemical processes can occur on-site, and the process can be tuned an d adjusted to minimize emissions.

Laboratory areas within the headquarters facility provide space for instrumental and wet chemistry analytical measurements. The wet chemistry section includes dual fume hoods, refrigerated reagent storage, specialized balances, and a safety shower/eye wash station. The instrumental section is plumbed for Gas Chromatography (multiple stations) and instrument support gases. Additional space is provided for equipment calibration including a wind tunnel, VOC standard preparation, gas meter calibration etc.

©Cubix Corporation

9225 Lockhart Hwy.

Austin, TX. 78747

PH: (512) 243-0202

FAX: (512) 243-0222

6.4 Emission Testing Services, Inc. (ETS)

Emission Testing Services, Inc. (ETS), would like to provide environmental testing for your Company. Information is being provided so that you will feel confident with ETS's qualifications. ETS employs full-time employees in the administrative section of the organization. All calibrations and functions directly related to source sampling are performed in-house by ETS's full time staff.

ETS performs all Appendix A EPA reference methods and NESHAPS. In addition, ETS performs "Incinerator Trial Burns", BACT testing, and hot zone characterizations. ETS uses and prefers continuous analyzers to measure NOx, S O2, CO, O2, THC, TNMHC, specifi c organics and total reduced sulfur; however, we routinely use the wet chemical techniques as well. In addition to state and EPA reference methods, ETS performs numerous non-routine studies such as fence-line monitoring for specific pollutants, efficiency studies for product recovery and combustion as well as SARAH title III, BIF and air toxic studies.

Emission Testing Services certifies continuous emission monitors by Performance Specification Testing and maintains certifications on CEM's by employing appendix F or either an abbreviated version thereof. BIF certifications are also performed on a rou tine basis.

Emission Testing Services can perform audits on internal combustion engines (ICU) with a portable analyzer which has been approved by the state regulatory agency.

ETS provides on site analysis for method 5 and titrations when applicable. We send our other samples out to independent laboratories with random audit standards. In addition, ETS discusses laboratory preference and analytical techniques with the client and the appropriate regulatory officials before testing commences. At any rate, all samples are performed using reference method protocols.

Emission Testing Services provides all reports according to state and EPA requirements.

6.5 GK Associates, Inc.

GK Associates, Inc. was founded in 1992 as an independent service organization (ISO) with its main focus to provide consulting and technical support services for Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS). The company's first objective was to provid e unparalleled technical support for clients who owned the Perkin-Elmer MCS-100 multi-component CEM systems. The MCS-100 analyzer lies at the heart of most of the CEMS currently supported by GK Associates and were assembled and delivered by Altech Systems Corporation.

GK Associates now provides support for many other analyzer manufacturers' products in addition to the Perkin-Elmer CEM system. These systems include equipment manufactured by Rosemount Analytic, Thermo-Electron Co. (TECO), Ametek, California Analytical Instruments, M&C Products, J.U.M. Instruments, and LAND Combustion, to name just a few. Most CEM systems supported by GK Associates also use various Data Acquisition Systems (DAS) incorporating sophisticated programmable logic controllers, computer s ubsystems, networking architecture and associated software. GK Associates has recently been upgrading existing Odessa Engineering DAS systems to newer, more reliable systems based on several industry standard PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) platforms. GK Associates' engineers are well versed in the design, configuration and programming of these PLC's and DCS systems such as Allen Bradley, Hewlett Packard, Honeywell, Foxboro, Siemens, General Electric and others.

The philosophy of GK Associates is to provide to our clients the most professional, courteous and experienced staff to supplement existing technical and administrative personnel. This is done through contractual or per incident support services designe d specifically for each client's individual needs. These services can be provided for either short or long term requirements and are designed to allow the client to control costs and overhead by eliminating the need for additional training and personnel.

6.6 Labyrinth Systems, Inc.

2 Bert Drive, Suite #12

West Bridgewater, MA 02379


Labyrinth Systems, Inc. has nearly two decades of experience in process control and environmental systems design and installation. Our list of products and services encompasses a wide range of applications:

Process Samplers

Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

Mobile CEM Testing Laboratories

SCADA and Data Acquisition Systems

CEM Testing Equipment

Outsourcing Services

Maintenance and Retrofit Services

Analyzer Repair and Service

Automated Emissions Testing Software

6.7 Canary Air Company

Serving Air Quality Management Needs Worldwide

Specializing in:

Boiler and Gas Turbine Emissions Testing

Custom Software Development for Emissions Testing, Tuning, and Analysis

Consulting on both Technical and Legal aspects of Air Quality Management

With specialists in Combustion Sciences and Environmental Issues and with extensive expertise in emissions testing and tuning, analysis, and data acquisition, Canary Air Company can meet any need in the combustion field.

In addition to our consulting services, Canary Air provides a variety of software packages for use in the combustion field. Canerac version 4.4 is a Windows-based data acquisition and analysis

package for use with Energy Efficiency System's ENERAC instrument package. It provides an easy

graphical interface and powerful analysis tools to increase the productivity of Enerac measurements.

The Canerac framework can be expanded to provide customized solutions to meet our client's needs.

As a special feature of our website, visit our Emissions Calculator - a Java Application for Calculating Combustion Emissions. A Windows-based version of the Emissions Calculator is now

available as shareware.


Environmental Quality Monitoring

The Neotronics Group designs, manufactures, markets and services a range of quality instrumentation for safety and environmental applications. The Group is represented worldwide with offices in the UK, USA, France, Germany and Singapore and supported by a distribution network which covers over 40 countries.


With Solomat's air measurement instrumentation you can perform simple measurements enabling you to improve the general environment of the workplace and increase the efficiency of your processes. Solomat's aim is to provide industry with high quality, r eliable and accurate instruments from hand-held spot check instruments to stand-alone dataloggers, for monitoring temperature, relative humidity, airspeed, pressure, rpm, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.


Indoor Air Quality

The need to maintain adequate ventilation and thermal comfort to ensure a healthy indoor environment is recognised in the Health and Safety Commission Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992, in the US ASHRAE standards and is anticipate d in Europe. The four principal indoor air quality indicators are volumetric airflow, relative humidity, temperature and carbon dioxide levels of delivered and background air. Solomat's systems monitor these and enable you to add further probes for radian t temperature, carbon monoxide and outside air conditions to tailor the system to your particular requirements.

Heating and Ventilation

Accurate and reliable measurements are required for air conditioning and full air balancing, building commissioning and regulation, duct traversing and air supply rates or temperature profiling and thermal comfort. Solomat's instruments for portable an d fixed applications provide the solution, with dataloggging and reporting facilities.



Multifunctional, portable instrument. Read data from the unit or download to a printer.


Use as a simple hand-held tool or build into a multipoint fixed system capable of data analysis and interface with building management systems.

IAQ Solopac

Specifically designed for indoor air quality measurements with full datalogging and reporting capability.


Portable micromanometer for measuring pressure, velocity and volume flow rate over a wide dynamic range.

6.9 ATI

The Quality of the air we breathe and the water we drink is a basic consern to everyone. Analytical Technology is committed to developing and improving the sensing technologies that help insure the quality of the environment in which we live and work.

At ATI, we specialize in the application of electrochemistry to air and water monitoring problems. Out sensors are at work 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, year after year, helping safegaurd the workplace against the dangers of toxic gas emissions and improving the control of potable water and wastewater treatment. From simple analog transmitters to sophisticated microprocessor based systems, we strive to provide the reliability and durability demanded in today's market.

Innovative product design with an emphasis on reduced operational maintenance is the goal in every product we offer. From our exclusive Auto-Test gas sensor verification system to our unique D.O. sensor cleaning system, we provide monitoring solutions that are reliable and cost effective. Quality product design, years of sensor development and manufacturing expirence, and knowledgeable application support are an integral part of the products we offer.


ECOTECH Pty Ltd was established by Managing Director Robert Dal Sasso. ECOTECH is an independent, wholly Australian-owned company which specialises in the design, supply and maintenance of sophisticated air and water monitoring equipment and systems.

With 25 years of experience ECOTECH has developed a comprehensive product range comprising of both own-manufactured equipment and carefully selected monitoring and sampling equipment from the

world's leading manufacturers of environmental monitoring instrumentation.

ECOTECH combines the best available equipment from around the world to provide the most

sophisticated and reliable air and water monitoring systems available.

We trust you will find the ECOTECH web site an informative and enjoyable experience!

Our Products...

Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Systems

Source Emission Monitoring systems

Dust Samplers (TSP PM 10 & PM 2.5)

Gas Diluters and Gas Calibrators

Weather Stations and Meteorological Sensors

On-line and Personal Toxic Gas Monitoring Systems

Process Gas and Ambient Air Analyzers

Automatic Waste Water Samplers

Area Velocity Flowmeters

On-line Water Monitoring Systems

Data Acquisition Systems

This comprehensive range of products offered by ECOTECH comprises both own

-manufactured equipment together with carefully selected monitoring and sampling units from the world's leading makers

Our world wide presence has allowed us to source the best the world has to offer. If we feel there is a better way then we design and produce it. What this means is that we at ECOTECH can guarantee you State of the Art technology.


Ten Principles of the New Environmentalism - Finance & Development

Table of Contents for Env. Matters

GAEA - Carbon Dioxide and other Greenhouse Gas Emissions

GAEA - Suspended Particulate Matter

Environmental Themes

Global Environment Facility

The Environment as a Business Opportunity

Welcome to the AIJ Home Page

United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change Website

CC:INFO: Activity Matrices: Table of Contents

Brazil Home Page on the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change


Emissions and other data

JIQ Joint Implementation Network


Eco News

EcoMall, Environment, Eco Products, Ecology, Environmental Products, Biodegradable, Green Marketplace, Green Money, New Age, Environmentally Friendly, Health Store, Vegetarian, Hemp, Recycled, Ecological Products, Sustainable, Natural Health, Enviro nmental, Green Products, Earth Friendly, Green Market, Organic Products, Non Toxic, Photovoltaic, Solar, Green Shopping, Renewable Energy, Recycle, Organic Produce, Recycled Paper, Utopia

AQMD WWW Home Page

TAO Project Highlights

Monitoring Environmental



Negotiation is an art developed through study and practice. Effective negotiation requires and understanding of the social, cultural, political, and economic systems, as well as an expertise in technical, financial, accounting, and legal analysis. Negotiation is here defined as the use of common sense under pressure to achieve objectives. However, reaching explicit agreement on all points is not necessarily the only objective of negotiation; in fact, agreement may be reached on only some of the explicit proposals being negotiated. Even then agreements vary widely in their degree of specificity and in the extent of disagreement which is left unsettled. The outcome of negotiations is more than merely an explicit agreement.

  1. First, negotiation takes place within the context of the four Cs represented in the second circle in figure 1-1. The four Cs stand for common interests (something to negotiate for), conflicting interests (something to negotiate about), compromise (give and take on points), and criteria or objectives (determining the objective and the criteria for its achievement).
  2. Second, negotiation takes place within the context of an environment composed of the political, economic, social, and cultural systems of a country. The strategies and tactics of negotiation are directly influenced by the environment which varies with each country.
  3. Third, the negotiators must develop a broad perspective that includes the larger context within which they negotiate. Such perspective is developed through answering such questions as "Besides the factors directly related to the ongoing negotiation, what other developments influence the approach to negotiation of the opposite group(s) and of various levels of the organization we represent?" For example, in negotiation with a government, the international corporation (IC) should recognize questions such as "What other similar and related projects has the government negotiated in the past? What has been the reaction of political and economic interest groups within the host country to the terms of investment granted to foreign investors in these projects? What pressures are being placed by external groups on the host government for a particular pattern of development of the industry?" Such question would need to be raised by the IC and other major groups involved with or influenced by the negotiations. In essence, perspective requires that the negotiators understand the characteristics of the broader framework within which they negotiate and be able to interpret the framework for its implications for the specific negotiations they are engaged in.
  4. Fourth, over time, the four Cs change and the information, know-how, and alternatives available to the IC and the host country also change, resulting in a fresh interpretation of the four Cs, the environment, and perspective.
  5. Fifth, the unique characteristic of international versus domestic business negotiations is that international negotiations are influenced by a wide diversity of environments that require changing perspectives which determine the selection of appropriate negotiation tactics and strategies to be adopted. Specific groups in different environments have their own concept of what is "right," "reasonable," or "appropriate" in negotiations; each groups also has its own expectations of the likely response of an opposing group to and issue, event, or mood determined by its "self reference criterion" - that is, "the unconscious reference to one's own cultural values."

A negotiation, both the process and outcome, is influenced by a vast range of issues, events, and personalities. Developing a list of "do's" and "don'ts" in negotiation is always fraught with dangers of simplification and oversight.

Briefly stated below are major aspects to be kept in mind during negotiations, organized into the four broad and interrelated categories of: empathy, role of governments, decision making characteristics, and organizing for negotiation.

A) Empathy

The environmental context (political, social, cultural, economic) is different between countries. Negotiators need to understand the nature and reasons for the differences. Some of the major setbacks in negotiations between the IC and the host government or company take place because of insufficient empathy of each other's environmental context. Try to:

1. Place yourselves in the other persons' shoes. It is not sufficient to merely know the position and approach of your opponents to a negotiation; even more important is to understand the reasons which prompt them to adopt the particular stance. This requires that the negotiators view the four Cs and the particular environmental context in a country form the view point of the individuals they are negotiating with. For example, a government official in a developing country might place particular weight on the political influences on him instead of emphasizing the economic dimensions of a project because the official's power and continuity in office is determined by his ability to satisfy individuals with political power. Such a context is significantly different from what the American negotiator is used to, especially in the United States.

2. Understanding the different ways of thinking. Reaching the same conclusions is important, but in negotiations it is even more important to know the thought process by which individuals from different cultures reach the same conclusions. The environmental factors have a direct influence on the ways of thinking, outlook toward, and the manner in which problems are solved. For example, bribes to government position and a means of supplementing very low government salaries. Most IC executives, on the other hand, in keeping with the values of their own country, view such a practice with disdain and disfavor, and as illegal.

3. Pay attention to saving face of the opponent. "Winning" in a negotiation situation should not result in a loss of face for the opponent, especially in countries where personal honor is a sensitive issue. Unlike the United States, many countries typically possess hierarchical structures of society where a superior-subordinate relationship exists between two individuals. Caste, family name, and type of occupation are some of the determinants of status. The "image" of "face" of an individual determines the extent to which he can influence others.

4. Improve your knowledge of host country. Often negotiators do not have sufficient knowledge of the history, culture and political characteristic of a country in which they are negotiating. Yet, host country nationals are proud of their heritage and traditions and feel flattered when a foreigner reflects some knowledge and understanding of their country. For example, in the mid 1960s when Singapore first started to attract foreign investments, host government officials received letters from American companies addressed to "Singapore, care of the Republic of China." Needless to say, they were offended and did not feel that inquiries from such companies were worthy of further exploration.

B) Role of the Government

Unlike the United States, governments in most emerging countries and in Japan play a major role in planning, regulating, and often participating in industrial ventures. Insufficient recognition of the important role of the host governments in economic matters results in serious setbacks in negotiations in emerging countries. Keep in mind:

1. Recognition of the nature and characteristics of the role of government in centrally planned economies. The desire for rapid development, distrust of private enterprise, lack of indigenous entrepreneurial talent - these and other considerations have prompted host governments in many countries to play a major role in planning for the economic development of their countries. The planning is often highly detailed, as in India, and at times it is general administrative guidance, as in Japan. The planning process is based on both economic and political considerations and the international company has to fit in such a context. The IC executives, used to a far more laissez-faire context of the United States, have to understand and interpret the environmental context of a planned economy in undertaking a negotiation.

2. Recognition of the relatively low status assigned to business people. Not only are government officials in planned economies powerful, but they often look down upon business people, who are viewed as being concerned only with questions of profits and not the broader national aspirations of the society. In many countries, broader environmental factors (historical, cultural, etc.) have created such an attitude. For example, in India the business community was viewed as being too closely associated with the British colonizers for purposes of economic benefits. The Hindu religion does not stress material achievements by deals more with the spiritual aspects of life. In Indonesia the loyalty of the Chinese business community is questioned by the "pure" Indonesians, resulting in distrust and suspicion of the Chinese businessman. The IC business people, therefore, have to recognize the environmental factors that have created the existing attitudes toward private enterprise and plan their negotiation accordingly.

3. Recognition of the role of the host government in negotiations. Negotiations in emerging countries are generally tripartite in nature, involving the foreign company, the local company, and the host government. The government approves the terms on which the foreign enterprise is permitted to invest in the country. Therefore, planning for negotiations by the IC must recognize at least a triangular situation. For example, the IC often needs to develop direct access to appropriate host government officials to learn firsthand their views on the investment, instead of depending solely for such information on the local partners who might be wish to promote a particular orientation of the project that suits his interests but not necessarily those of the IC. Again, the broader environmental context needs to be understood in planning for this dimension of negotiations in developing countries.

4. The perception in host countries of the role of the IC's home government in negotiation. Regardless of what the reality of the situation is, the host government believes that the foreign company uses the muscle of its home government in negotiations with the host government. The broader environmental context of many emerging countries largely explains such a perception. It is consistent with theirs own tradition where indigenous businessmen seek the protection of their government for economic benefits. Historically, especially during the colonial period, foreign enterprise from the colonizing country gained benefits in the colony because of protection of the government of the colonizing country. Also, and to a far greater extent than is true for US companies, European and Japanese governments play an active role in assisting companies from their countries in dealing with host government. In Southeast Asia, for example, host governments exposed to such behavior by the Japanese government assume that US companies also engage in similar practices, although in a more covert manner.

C)Decision Making Characteristics

The structure, orientation, human skills, objectives, and goals of and organization influence the approach to decision making. Governments, as organizations, are different in these respects form the IC. Insufficient recognition of the characteristics of decision making leads to setbacks in negotiations with host governments. Keep in mind to:

1. Acknowledge the weights assigned to economic and political criteria in decision making. Host government officials place particular stress on political consideration in evaluating investment proposals in keeping with the general orientation of the type of organization to which they belong. For example, the central government in Indonesia first granted and then rescinded a timber concession to an American company. The military governor of the area where the concession was located had entered into an agreement with the Chinese and Japanese interests. Given the delicate internal political situation in the country, the central government did not with to challenge the authority of the military governor.

2. Understand the difference between approval at one level and implementation of such approval at other levels of the government. Gaining approval of the central government for and investment does not mean that other levels of the government will automatically implement the approval. Internal organizational problems, personality and jurisdictional conflicts and lack of trained personnel, especially at lower levels of government, are some of the reasons for delays between approval and implementation that must be understood by the executives in negotiating with governments. The earlier example of timber concession illustrates this dimension of negotiation. In Japan, different ports of entry were charging different rates of import duty for the same items because the responsible ministry in Tokyo had not adequately communicated the duty schedule to the custom authorities.

3. Understand the role of personal relations and personalities in decision making by the host government. Host government officials possess considerable discretion in interpretation of policies and regulation relating to foreign investments. Often it is the individual who determines the power of and office and not the other way around. Because of the importance of the individual, it is necessary for the foreign negotiator to develop a personal relationship with appropriate government officials.

4. Allocate sufficient time for negotiations. It simply takes longer in certain countries to present a proposal, to gain a reaction, and to offer a response because of distance, mutual suspicion, different ways of thinking, and the internal decision making structure of both the government and the IC. The consensus approach to decision making in Japan and the hesitation of a government official to assume responsibility, especially in projects which are not keeping with precedents, are some of the reason for the delays in host government decision making.


Negotiation is a complex and time consuming activity involving a range of individuals from the IC and the host government company who negotiate to achieve their respective objectives within a changing environmental context. Insufficient attention to organizing effectively for negotiation results in delays and setbacks especially in negotiations with host governments. Pay attention to:

1. Planning for changing negotiation strength. The negotiation strength of the IC and the host country often changes over the duration of an investment; and such changes in negotiation strength result in renegotiation of the terms of the original investment. Therefore, both the IC and the host government should explicitly recognize and integrate changes in negotiation strength in planning for negotiation.

2. Interference by headquarters. Headquarters personnel sometimes interfere directly in negotiations, causing serious damage to the credibility of the country level managers and the field negotiations. Host government officials prefer to negotiate with executives who in their opinion have the power to decide on behalf of the companies they represent. At times, headquarters interference without sufficient communication to the country level results in promoting an unfavorable government decision. For example, the American Chamber of Commerce in Mexico was making representations to the host government for greater clarity of policies on foreign investment. Senior government officials of Mexico, on a visit to the United States, were entertained by corporate level executives of US companies with operations in Mexico. Corporate executives stressed the need for clarity of government policies on foreign investment. This representation partially contributed to codes on foreign investment. It was an outcome considerably different from what the American Chamber of Commerce and its member companies were seeking to gain from the Mexican government.

3. Planning for internal communication and decisions. Several parts of an organization have an interest in an ongoing negotiation and their views and preferences have to be recognized in negotiating for a particular package of terms of investment. Often in an ongoing negotiation a rapid response to developments is required from the interested parties; a rapid response might not be forthcoming. Of course, at times a response is purposely delayed because of the need for additional review or because of disagreement with what is being proposed by the field negotiators. In any event, in negotiation it is just as important to develop effective channels of communication within one's own group as it is to have effective channels of communication with the opposing groups.

4. The role of the negotiator in accommodating the conflicting interests of his/her group with those of the opposing groups. The IC seeks certain terms of investment in a country that might be greater than what the field negotiator believes can be secured. Conversely, the host government might make demands on the IC that are greater than what the field negotiator believes would be acceptable to the IC. Therefore, the negotiator plays a crucial role as interpreter, intermediary, and counselor both to his/her own group and to the opposing group on what can be achieved in a particular negotiation.

5. Recognition of the loci of decision making authority. Decisions are seldom made by any one branch of government but are shared across agencies and ministries because of the particular characteristics of government organizations. Therefore, the IC must know the diverse centers of influence within the government and be skilled in dealing with them. For example, in a South American country, the IC recognized that the central government would be strongly influenced by the wishes or a powerful state government. It therefore make a special effort to inform the state government of the benefits it would derive from the project in the hope of gaining its influence in dealing with the central government.

6. Recognition of the strength of competitors. The emerging countries have access to a growing range of alternative sources of supply of the resources they seek. Therefore, in planning for negotiation, the IC needs to recognize the unique characteristics (including the terms of negotiation) that are likely to be accepted by the competition emanating from Western Europe, Japan and elsewhere. Note: The tendency to underestimate the competitive strength and negotiation skills of non-American companies is a source of weakness in many of the American companies' planning for negotiations.

7. Attention to training executives in the art of negotiation. Negotiating, especially with host government officials, consumes a growing amount of the time of an American executive at the country level. Effective negotiations can serve to promote and protect the interests if the IC. Yet executives are seldom trained or encouraged to develop negotiating skills.


1. Do Not Bargain Over Positions

Arguing over positions produces unwise agreements.

Arguing over positions is inefficient.

Arguing over positions endangers an ongoing relationship.

When there are many parties, positional bargaining is even worse.

Being nice is no answer.

There is always another alternative.

2. Basic Elements of Negotiation


Always remember to separate people from the problem. Negotiators are people first.

Every negotiator has two kinds of interest: in the substance and in the relationship.

Identify when a relationship tends to become entangled with the problem and when positional bargaining puts the relationship and the substance in conflict.

Separate the relationship from the substance; deal directly with the people problem.


Always remember to put yourself in their shoes.

Do not deduce intention from your fears.

Do not blame them for your problem.

Discuss each others perceptions.

Look for opportunities to act inconsistently with their perceptions.

Give them a stake in the outcome by making sure they participate in the process.

Face-saving: make your proposals consistent with their values.


First recognize and understand emotions, theirs and yours.

Make emotions explicit and acknowledge them as legitimate.

Allow the other side to let off steam.

Do not react to emotional outbursts.

Use symbolic gestures.


Listen attentively and acknowledge what is being said.

Speak to be understood.

Speak about yourself, not about them.

Speak for a purpose.

Prevention works best:

Build a working relationship.

Face the problem, not the people.


For a wise solution reconcile interests, not positions

Interests define the problem.

Behind opposed positions lie shared and compatible interests, as well as conflicting ones.

How do you identify interests?

Ask "Why?"

Ask "Why not?" Think about their choice.

Realize that each side has multiple interests.

The most powerful interests are basic human needs.

Make a list.

Talking about interests:

Make your interests come alive.

Acknowledge their interests as part of the problem.

Put the problem before your answer.

Look forward, not back.

Be concrete but flexible.

Be hard on the problem, soft on the people.

3. Inventing Options for Mutual Gain

Separate inventing from deciding:

Brainstorm with your side.

Consider brainstorming with the other side.

Broaden your options:

Multiply your options by shuttling between specific and the general.

Look through the eyes of different experts.

Invent agreements of different strengths.

Change the scope of a proposed agreement.

Look for mutual gain:

Identify shared interests.

Dovetail differing interests.

Any difference in interests?

Different beliefs?

Different values placed on time?

Different forecasts?

Differences in aversion to risk?

Ask for their preferences.

Make their decision easy:

Making threats is not enough.

4. Insist on Using Objective Criteria

Deciding on the basis of somebody's will is too costly.

Principled negotiation produces wise agreements

amicably and efficiently.

Developing objective criteria:

Fair standards and fair procedures.

Negotiating with objective criteria:

Frame each issue as a joint search for objective criteria:

Ask "What's your theory?"

Agree first on principles.

Reason and be open to reason.

Never yield to pressure.

NOTE: Based on "Getting to Yes" by Roger Fisher and William Ury


9.1 " Preparing for the Twenty-First Century", by Paul Kennedy, Vintage Books, 1994.

9.2 "Getting to Yes", by Roger Fisher and William Ury, Penguin Books, 1991.

9.3 "Atmospheric Pollution, a Global Problem", 2nd edition, by Derek Elsom, Blackwell Publishers, 1992.

9.4 "Transportation and Global Climate Change", by David L. Geene and Danilo J. Santini, American council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, 1993.

9.5 "Fundamentals of Air Pollution", 3rd edition, by Richard W. Boubel, Donald L. Fox, D. Bruce Turner, and Arthur C. Stern, Academic Press, 1994.

9.6 "Beyond the Limits", by D.H. Meadows, D.L. Meadows, and J. Randers, Chelsea green Publishing Co., 1992.