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Vaccine Freezers' Requirements

 

EPI Equipment performance specifications and test procedures

 

E3: Refrigerators and Freezers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This module is part of the following series:

 

E1: Equipment performance specifications for cold rooms and freezer rooms

E2: Equipment performance specifications for motorcycles

E3: Equipment performance specifications for refrigerators and freezers

E4 & E11: Equipment performance specifications for insulated containers

E5: Equipment performance specifications for icepacks

E6: Equipment performance specifications for temperature monitoring devices

E7: Equipment performance specifications for cold chain accessories

E8: Equipment performance specifications for injection devices

E9: Equipment performance specifications for steam sterilizers

E10: Equipment performance specifications for injection accessories

Annexes

 

 

 

In this module reference is made to the following annexes:

ANNEX 1: Testing institutions

ANNEX 2: Electrical safety ratings

ANNEX 6: Kerosene quality

ANNEX 7: CFC free symbol

ANNEX 8: Test procedures drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1
(1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances'

ANNEX 9: Performance and design specifications for batteries used in solar-
powered vaccine refrigferators

ANNEX 10: Battery charge controller specifications

 

Contents

 

E3: Equipment Performance Specifications For Refrigerators And Freezers

Equipment Descriptions

Refrigerator & Vaccine/Icepack Freezer, Compression

Specification reference: E3/RF.1 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/3

Large Refrigerator & Icepack Freezer, Absorption

Specification reference: E3/RF.2 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/5

Icelined Refrigerator &/Or Freezer, Compression

Specification reference: E3/RF.3 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/4

Refrigerator &/Or Icepack Freezer, Compression DC

Specification reference: E3/RF.4 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/7

Refrigerator & Icepack Freezer, Thermal

Specification reference: E3/RF.5 Applies to procedures: [None set]

Small Refrigerator, Absorption 11

Specification reference: E3/RF.6 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/8

Vaccine/Icepack Chest Freezer, Compression

Specification reference: E3/FR.1 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/1

Icepack Freezer, Compression

Specification Reference: E3/FR.2 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/2

Icepack Freezer, Thermal Solar

Specification reference: E3/FR.3 Applies to procedures: [None set]

Icepack Freezer, Absorption

Specification reference: E3/FR.4 Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/6

E3: Standard Test Procedures For Refrigerators And Freezers

General Test Conditions

Glossary Refrigerators & Freezers

Vaccine/Icepack Chest Freezer, Compression

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/1 Applies to specification: E3/FR1

Icepack Fast Freezers, Compression

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/2 Applies to specification: E3/FR2

Refrigerator And Vaccine Or Icepack Freezer, Compression

Procedure Reference: E3/PROC/3 Applies to specification: E3/RF1

Icelined Refrigerat&/Or Freezer

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/4 Applies to specification: E3/RF3

Refrigerator And Icepack Freezer, Absorption

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/5 Applies to specification: E3/RF2

Icepack Freezer, Absorption

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/6 Applies to specification: E3/FR4

Solar (Pv) Refrigerator/Icepack Freezer

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/7 Applies to specification: E3/RF4

Small Refrigerator, Absorption

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/8 Applies to specification: E3/RF6

 

E3:
Equipment performance specifications for refrigerators and freezers

 

 

Equipment descriptions

 

Performance specifications cover the following types of refrigerator and freezer required for storing vaccines and freezing icepacks in the cold chain:

 

Refrigerators/freezers:

 

E3/RF.1 Refrigerator and freezer combination, compression cycle. To store vaccine at +4イ and -20イ and to freeze icepacks in health centres with electricity at urban and district levels.

E3/RF.2 Large refrigerator and icepack freezer combination, absorption cycle. To store vaccine at +4イ and freeze icepacks in large health centres with either poor or no electricity supplies.

E3/RF.3 Ice-lined refrigerator and/or freezer, combined or separate, compression cycle. To store vaccine in large vaccine stores with a minimum of eight hours of electricity each 24 hour cycle.

E3/RF.4 Photovoltaic solar refrigerator and/or icepack freezer, combined or separate, compression cycle. Complete photovoltaic system to run refrigerator/icepack freezer on electricity generated by the sun.

E3/RF.5 Thermal solar refrigerator and icepack freezer combination, adsorption or absorption cycle. To store vaccine at 0イ ア8イ and to freeze icepacks in small and large health centres.

E3/RF.6 Small refrigerator and icepack freezer combination, absorption cycle. To store vaccine at +4イ and freeze a small quantity of icepacks in small health centres with poor or no electricity supplies.

 

Freezers:

 

E3/FR.1 Vaccine/icepack chest freezer, compression cycle. To store measles and oral polio vaccine and quantities of frozen icepacks in large vaccine stores.

E3/FR.2 Icepack fast freezer, compression cycle. To freeze icepacks efficiently and quickly in large vaccine stores.

E3/FR.3 Thermal solar icepack freezer, adsorption or absorption cycle. To freeze icepacks efficiently in areas where no other reliable fuel source is available.

E3/FR.4 Icepack freezer, absorption cycle. To store measles and oral polio vaccine and quantities of frozen icepacks in large vaccine stores with poor or no electricity supplies.

 

REFRIGERATOR & VACCINE/ICEPACK FREEZER, COMPRESSION

Specification reference: E3/RF.1

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/3

Date of last revision: 1 January 19985 November 1997

Type/features:

Compression cycle, with 1 or 2 compressors;

CFC-f Free -units : R134a refrigerant only. The acceptability of alternative refrigerant gases will however continue to be assessed.

Note: R12 refrigerant is only acceptable within the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases.

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Temperature control:

Temperature of a full vaccine load in refrigerator to remain between 0イ to +8イ during +43イ and +32イ continuous ambient temperature and +43イ/+15イ day/night cycling temperature.

For freezing compartment suitable for storing vaccines the temperature should remain below -15イ in the same ambient temperatures.

Safe freezing capacity:

At least 1.6 kg and more than 2.5 kg of icepacks per 50 litres gross volume (freezing compartment) frozen per 24 hours at ambient temperatures of +43イ and +32イ while maintaining the above temperature control.

Holdover time:

Minimum 4 hours and more than 6 hours per 100 litres gross volume at an external temperature of +43イ.

Compressor starting voltage:

At 22% below manufacturers stated voltage, 10 out of 10 cold starts and 10 out of 10 hot starts all successful.

Electrical safety rating:

Only ratings 4 and 5 are acceptable (see Annex 2).

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Markings, accessories and fittings:

Compressors operating on R134a refrigerant should be marked with a blue disk painted or otherwise securely attached on their visible side. The disk should have a minimum diameter of 100 mm (see Annex 7).

External reading thermometer; door lock with key.

Instructions:

Users instructions in English, French, Spanish and Arabic available and provided upon request.

 

LARGE REFRIGERATOR & ICEPACK FREEZER, ABSORPTION

Specification reference: E3/RF.2

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/5

Date of last revision: 1 January 199828 October 1997

Type/features:

Absorption cycle

Manufacturer's gross volume: more than 100 litres

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Temperature control:

Temperature of a full vaccine load to remain within the range 0イ to +810C +10イ during +32イ and +43イ continuous ambient temperature; not to exceed 0イ/+10C +10イ during +32イ/+15イ day/night cycling temperature.

Safe freezing capacity:

At least 2.4 kg of icepacks frozen within a period of 24 hours at +32イ continuous ambient temperature, while maintaining the above temperature control.

Power consumption:

No standard set.

Fuel:

If kerosene, see Annex 6 for recommended fuel quality.

Holdover time:

More than 3 hours at an ambient temperature of +32イ.

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Accessories and fittings:

External reading thermometer; door lock with key.

Instructions:

Users instructions in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

 

ICELINED REFRIGERATOR &/or FREEZER, COMPRESSION

Specification reference: E3/RF.3

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/4

Date of last revision: 1 January 19985 November, 1997

Type/features:

Compression cycle; combined or separate.

CFC-free-units CFC Free units : R134a refrigerant only. The acceptability of alternative refrigerant gases will however continue to be assessed.

Note: R12 refrigerant is only acceptable within the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases.

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Temperature control:

Temperature of a full vaccine load in refrigerator to remain between 0イ to +8イ during:

Continuous availability of energy:

+43イ and +32イ continuous ambient temperature;

+43イ/+15イ day/night cycling temperature;

Intermittent electricity supply, 8 hours on/16 hours off:

+43イ continuous ambient temperature (20 day test).

For freezing compartment suitable for storing vaccines the temperature should remain below -15イ in the above ambient temperatures.

Safe freezing capacity:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

Holdover time:

No standard set, but the recommended target is a holdover time of more than 20 hours in a continuous external temperature of +43イ. Performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

Compressor starting voltage:

At 22% below manufacturers stated voltage, 10 out of 10 cold starts and 10 out of 10 hot starts all successful.

Electrical safety rating:

Only ratings 4 and 5 are acceptable (see Annex 2).

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Markings, accessories and fittings:

Compressors operating on R134a refrigerant should be marked with a blue disk painted or otherwise securely attached on their visible side. The disk should have a minimum diameter of 100 mm (see Annex 7)

External reading thermometer; door/lid-lock with key.

Instructions:

Users instructions in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

 

REFRIGERATOR &/or ICEPACK FREEZER,
COMPRESSION DC

Specification reference: E3/RF.4

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/7

Date of last revision: 1 January 19985 November, 1997

Type/features:

Photovoltaic solar, compression cycle; combined or separate;

CFC-free-units CFC Free units : R134a refrigerant. The acceptability of alternative refrigerant gases will however continue to be assessed.R134a refrigerant only

Note: R12 refrigerant is only acceptable within the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases.

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Criteria for qualification of solar refrigeration system suppliers:

The following general criteria are currently applied by WHO and UNICEF to the selection of system suppliers.

A system supplier must:

 

Photovoltaic system design:

The system shall be sized to enable continuous operation of the refrigerator and freezer (loaded and including icepack freezing) during the periods of lowest insolation in the year. If other loads, such as lighting are included in the system, they shall operate from a separate battery set, NOT the battery set which powers the refrigerator. In such a case, the charge regulator shall give priority to recharging the refrigerator battery set.

The design of the system shall permit a minimum of five days continuous operation when the battery set is fully charged and the photovoltaic array is disconnected.

Temperature control:

In continuous ambient temperatures of +32イ and +43イ the internal temperature of the refrigerator, when stabilized and fully loaded with the standard vaccine load, shall not exceed the range of 0イ to +8イ.

Safe freezing capacity:

The recommended load of standard icepacks (type E5/IP.1) containing water at the ambient test temperature shall freeze in one freezing cycle in less than 24 hours and shall weigh at least 2 kg, without the material of the pack. During the test, the same thermostat setting shall be maintained and the above temperature control shall be demonstrated in continuous ambient temperatures of +32イ and +43イ and day/night cycling temperatures of +43イ/+15イ.

Freezer storage capacity

No standard set, however it is recommended that the freezer compartment be able to accomodate a minimum of 16 frozen icepacks (8 Kgs) (frozen gradually over several days)

Power consumption:

Less than 0.7 KWh/24 hours for appliances with a gross volume of less than 50 litres, and less than 0.1 KWh per additional 10 litres gross volume, at 43イ with vaccine load, but without icepack freezing.

Photovoltaic array:

Modules shall meet the latest applicable specifications laid down by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA) or Joint Research Centre, Ispra, (Italy). Array structures shall be designed to withstand wind loads of +200 kg per square metre and shall be supplied with fixings for either ground or roof mounting.

Protection against the effect of lightning will be provided to protect the battery charge regulator and other components.

Array-to-refrigerator cable:

This cable shall be sized so that when the array is at its maximum operating temperature and maximum output, the voltage delivered is sufficient to charge the batteries at their maximum charge rate.

The manufacturer shall provide recommendations for sizing the cable (as a function of the distance from array to control box).

Battery set:

Batteries shall be capable of withstanding a minimum of 1000 cycles to 50% discharge. Maintenance intervals shall be limited to a maximum of once every six months. No dry cell batteries shall be used to power instruments or controls. The batteries shall be housed within a lockable ventilated cabinet with access for maintenance inspection in place.

Batteries must meet the WHO/EPI design specifications (***). Supporting documentation on the batteries must be provided (see Aannexes 9 and 10 ***)

Batteries must be supplied dry/charged with acid in separate hermetic containers.

Battery charge regulator:

Battery charge regulators must meet WHO/EPI design specifications. (***). Supporting documentation must be provided (See Annexes 9 and 10). ***). They must be precisely set to meet the charge and temperature requirements of the selected battery and they shall disconnect the load when the battery has reached a state of charge which can be repeated a minimum of 1000 cycles. Lightning surge protection shall be provided. The load shall be automatically reconnected when the system voltage recovers.

 

Markings and instrumentation:

Compressors operating on R134a refrigerant should be marked with a blue disk painted or otherwise securely attached on their visible side. The disk should have a minimum diameter of 100 mm (see Annex 7)

An alarm (red LED) shall be installed to warn that power to the compressor has been disconnected by the regulator. An alarm shall also be fitted to warn the user when the battery is in a low state of charge. The advance warning to the user (voltage threshold if voltmeter used, or orange light if LED used) shall be clearly labelled "Do not freeze icepacks" in an appropriate language.

An external reading thermometer shall be provided.

A thermostat OR a defrost switch shall be accessible to the user without tools but no other power switches shall be installed. Circuit breakers or fuses shall be installed in the positive line, near the battery, and the fuse-holder shall be in non-corrodible materials. Ten spare fuses shall be provided in a polyethylene bag fixed near any fuse box.

Essential spare parts:

The type and number of spare parts which may be needed during the first five years of operation shall be assembled as a kit in appropriate quantities for central or regional storage in the country. As a minimum, there shall be:

 

Spare parts

Quantity per 10 systems:

Photovoltaic modules

1

Battery charge regulators

2

Battery sets

1

Array cables

1

Compressor or complete cooling unit, as recommended by the manufacturer

1

Spare compressor electronic control cards

3

Thermostat or temperature control cards

3

Condenser fans (if used)

2

Instructions/manuals:

Manuals shall be provided with each refrigerator with clear descriptions for users and electrical technicians of:

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Packing:

Individual sea-crating of the components of each system should be provided whether or not containers are used to transport the systems. No package shall be larger or heavier than can be handled manually in the country of use. Labels bearing handling instructions shall be highly visible and printed clearly.

NOTE: Acid must be provided for the batteries (see above under "Battery set").

Warranty:

Any component of the system which fails due to defective design materials or workmanship will be covered by a warranty for replacement. The minimum period of the warranty shall be 10 years for the solar array, 5 years for the batteries and 2 years for the other components.

 

REFRIGERATOR & ICEPACK FREEZER, THERMAL

Specification reference: E3/RF.5

Applies to procedures: [No Standard Test Procedure available]

Date of last revision: 1 January 19981 September 1997

Type/features:

Thermal solar, adsorption or absorption cycle

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Temperature control:

Temperature of a full vaccine load to remain within the range 0イ to +8イ when maximum daytime temperature is between +32イ and +43イ.

Manufacturer to state minimum daytime temperature and minimum day/night-time interval required to maintain this temperature control.

Safe freezing capacity:

At least 2 kg of icepacks frozen within a period of 24 hours at +32イ ambient temperature, while maintaining the above temperature control.

No sun autonomy:

72 hours at +32イ ambient temperature.

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Accessories and fittings:

External reading thermometer; door/lid-lock with key; fence for protection if equipment installed outside.

Instructions:

Detailed installation instructions and users guide in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

 

SMALL REFRIGERATOR, ABSORPTION

Specification reference: E3/RF.6

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/8

Date of last revision: 1 January 19981 September 1997

Type/features:

Absorption cycle.

Manufacturer's gross volume: less than 100 litres.

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Temperature control:

Temperature of a full vaccine load to remain within the range 0イ to +8イ during +32イ continuous ambient temperature; not to exceed 0イ/+10イ during +32イ/+15イ day/night cycling temperature.

No standard set, however performance at an ambient temperature of 15イ will be measured and published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

Safe freezing capacity:

No standard is set, however performance will be measured for publication in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

Power consumption:

No standard is set, however performance will be measured for publication in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

Fuel:

If kerosene, see Annex 6 for recommended fuel quality.

Holdover time:

Minimum 3 hours at an ambient temperature of +32イ.

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion in compliance with DIN 8985 or any equivalent national or international standard.

Accessories and fittings:

External reading thermometer; door lock with key.

Instructions:

Users instructions in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

 

VACCINE/ICEPACK CHEST FREEZER, COMPRESSION

Specification reference: E3/FR.1

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/1

Date of last revision: 1 January 19985 November, 1997

Type/features:

Compression cycle; low energy.

CFC-free-units CFC Free units : R134a refrigerant. The acceptability of alternative refrigerant gases will however continue to be assessed.R134a refrigerant only

Note: R12 refrigerant is only acceptable within the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases.

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Temperature control:

The vaccine load must remain below -15イ during +43イ continuous external temperature; +43イ/+15イ day/night cycling temperature. While freezing a quantity of icepacks equal to its icepack freezing capacity, the temperature of the full load of vaccines must remain below -5イ and return to below -15イ within the 24 hour freezing cycle.

Icepack freezing capacity:

If there is a fast freeze compartment, more than 7 kg ice to be frozen in icepacks per 24 hours at +43イ while maintaining above temperature control.

Power consumption:

Less than 1 KWh per 24 hours, per 100 litres gross volume stable running, fully loaded with vaccine only, at +43イ ambient temperature.

Holdover time:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

Compressor starting voltage:

At 22% below manufacturers stated voltage, 10 out of 10 cold starts and 10 out of 10 hot starts all successful.

Electrical safety rating:

Only ratings 4 and 5 are acceptable (see Annex 2).

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Markings, accessories and fittings:

External reading thermometer; doorlock with key.

Compressors operating on R134a refrigerant should be marked with a blue disk painted or otherwise securely attached on their visible side. The disk should have a minimum diameter of 100 mm (see Annex 7)

Instructions:

Users instructions in English, French, Spanish , Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

ICEPACK FREEZER, COMPRESSION

Specification reference: E3/FR.2

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/2

Date of last revision: 1 January 19985 November, 1997

Type/features:

Compression cycle

CFC-free-units CFC Free units : R134a refrigerant. The acceptability of alternative refrigerant gases will however continue to be assessed.R134a refrigerant only

Note: R12 refrigerant is only acceptable within the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases.

Evaporator configuration: Evaporator set in shelves; minimum clearance between shelves 130 mm.

Thermal insulation

Any gas complying with the geographic limitations and deadlines set by the Montreal Protocol on the ban of CFC gases can be used as thermal insulation foaming agent.

Icepack freezing capacity:

Minimum 15 kg of ice (icepack type E5/EP.1) frozen per 24 hours plus 15 kg for every 100 litre of gross storage volume, i.e. 15 kg for 1-99 litre, 30 kg for 100-199 litre, etc..

Power consumption:

Less than 1 KWh per 24 hours per 10 kg ice frozen at +43イ ambient temperature.

Compressor starting voltage:

At 22% below manufacturers stated voltage, 10 out of 10 cold starts and 10 out of 10 hot starts all successful.

Electrical safety rating:

IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11)

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Marking, accessories and fittings:

External reading thermometer; doorlock with key.

Compressors operating on R134a refrigerant should be marked with a blue disk painted or otherwise securely attached on their visible side. The disk should have a minimum diameter of 100 mm (see Annex 7)

Instructions:

Users instructions in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

 

ICEPACK FREEZER, THERMAL SOLAR

Specification reference: E3/FR.3

Applies to procedures: [No Standard Test Procedure available]

Date of last revision: 1 January 19981 September 1997

Type/features:

Thermal solar, adsorption or absorption cycle

Icepack freezing capacity:

More than 15 kg ice in 0.6 or 0.4 kg icepacks (type E5/IP.1 or 2) per 24 hours at +32イ ambient temperature.

Manufacturer to state minimum daytime temperature and minimum day/night-time temperature interval at which 10 kg of ice can be produced within 24 hours.

Holdover time:

Temperature not to exceed 0イ in 72 hours with load of 7.5 kg of ice at +32イ ambient temperature when thermodynamic cycle is not operating.

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Accessories and fittings:

External reading thermometer; door/lid-lock with key.

Instructions:

Detailed installation instructions and users guide in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

 

ICEPACK FREEZER, ABSORPTION

Specification reference: E3/FR.4

Applies to procedures: E3/PROC/6

Date of last revision: 1 January 19981 September 1997

Type/features:

Absorption cycle

Icepack freezing and storage capacity:

Power consumption:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

Fuel:

If kerosene, see Annex 6 for recommended fuel quality.

Corrosion resistance:

Internal and external cabinet, lid and frame protected against corrosion to DIN 8985.

Accessories and fittings:

External reading thermometer; doorlock with key.

Instructions:

Users instructions in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic available and provided upon request.

E3:
Standard test procedures
for refrigerators and freezers

 

General test conditions

1. Testing conditions

Tests must be carried out in a room for which both temperature and humidity are capable of being controlled within an accuracy of + or -1C. Stable temperature of +32C and +43C are required within the room with relative humidity (RH) in the range of 45% to 75%. Temperatures within the appliance must be capable of being continuously monitored to within an accuracy of ± 0.5C without the sensors used influencing the test in any way. Thermocouples which are sealed within the appliance are most commonly used.

Up to 15 simultaneous temperature measurements may be required for a single appliance. The ambient temperatures at which equipment is tested must remain within a tolerance of ± 1C, unless otherwise stated.

It is essential that appliances are level and that air flow around the appliance is not restricted in any way.

2. Stabilization times

Before measuring the performance of a refrigerator or freezer under normal running conditions, conditions must be stable. This is normally assumed to exist when either:

(a) the thermostat has been cycling for 24 hours, or

(b) the temperature at each point in the appliance varies by less than 2C over 24 hours.

3. Loading

Appliances are tested in both empty and loaded conditions. Tests which call for a vaccine load specifically require:

Cardboard boxes 100 x 100 x 100 mm and 100 x 100 x 50 mm containing empty glass vials or bottles so that the gross weight of the load is equivalent to 0.35 to 0.45 kg per litre volume of boxes.

This load is packed in the following manner:

Freezers: No air spaces are left between the boxes or between the boxes and the walls. The loading should respect any maximum loading lines recommended by the manufacturer. The load is not placed in the fast freeze compartments of freezers.

Refrigerators: The load is packed in refrigerators with air spaces of 15 mm between each column of packets and between the packets and any adjoining walls of the refrigerator.

The total volume of vaccine which can be stored in this way is taken as the vaccine storage capacity used for testing. The volume and distribution of the vaccine load should be recorded in all cases.

Tests which call for a load of icepacks specifically require:

Icepack freezers/freezing compartments: 0.6 litre icepacks conforming to Specification E5/IP1.

Solar PV refrigerators: 0.6 litre icepacks conforming to Specification E5/IP1.

4. Recorded temperatures

Temperatures are recorded at various points within an appliance to monitor the temperature of the load, or the internal temperatures of the appliance when empty. In general, the temperatures at centre of the vaccine load or empty cabinet are recorded together with any positions which are likely to have extremes of temperature. Such positions might be near door seals, or where air circulation is restricted by the appliance design. Other positions are also monitored so that an overall picture of the temperature distribution can be obtained. Suggested positions of sensors for all refrigeration equipment are given in the figures at the end of this procedure.

Where appropriate, the following points should also be monitored:

 

Positions of sensors should never be altered during the stable running tests. Special care should be taken in reporting and analysing data for temperature distribution in case domestic refrigerators with separate vegetable compartments in the bottom are tested; these compartments usually have much higher temperatures than the rest of the refrigerator and are not normally used for storing vaccine. So that the values obtained for the vegetable compartment do not distort those of the main compartment, they should be reported and analysed separately.

5. Fuel sources

If equipment can be operated by more than one fuel source (particularly absorption refrigerators) and the order of the test has not been already determined, then the tests should start on electrical power before moving to another option.

For equipment which can be run as a freezer or as a refrigerator, the first set of tests should test the refrigerator function and the second should test the freezer function.

Multi-fuel, multi-function equipment will be lengthy and costly to test, so a decision should be made by WHO on a case by case basis which options should be tested.

 

6. General inspection

On receipt, all refrigerators and freezers should be carefully examined to ensure that no serious damage or defects are present. Before testing commences, each appliance should be run for at least 48 hours to run in and to check that it is operating correctly.

The initial inspection report is sent to WHO as soon as possible. It should be as complete as possible, particularly regarding:

The test laboratory should include in its initial report to WHO the schedule of the tests to be carried out. If a previous version of the same appliance was tested, the physical and procedural differences between the appliances and their respective test cycles should be mentioned.

Photographs should be taken showing a 3/4 view of the appliance with the door open. Borderless black and white prints l00 x 70 mm should be provided for attachment to the Product Information Sheet.

7. Electrical safety

Manufacturer should provide evidence of conformity with one of the following standards: VDE, BEAB. If no evidence is provided, an inspection should be made including the following points:

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.

8. Corrosion

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

 

9. Reporting

Reports should be to a fixed format. If more than one piece of equipment is being tested, then one report per manufacturer should be prepared including the test results of all equipment belonging to the same manufacturer. Appliances should be referred to by code to avoid confusion of names. A list of these codes and the corresponding names, models and country of origin should be as a separate fold-out table at the back of the report.

The report should be in four sections as given below:

(1) Introduction: This gives a brief description of the purpose of the tests and the samples used.

(2) Testing Procedure: Contains a copy of the standard testing procedure and a description of the test apparatus used.

(3) Results: The results of test on each product are described individually. For each product, the following are provided:

    1. A copy of the initial inspection report.
    2. A description and interpretation of the test results, with a table summarizing performance results, with a comparison with previous versions of the same appliance if applicable.
    3. Graphs showing all test results and diagrams showing distribution of internal temperatures with distinct marks for the thermocouples measuring vaccines, icepacks, freezers and evaporator temperatures.

(4) Performance summary Reports are prepared and submitted to WHO as follows:

    1. Initial inspection report, on arrival of equipment.
    2. Interim performance report, at end of +32C tests.
    3. Final report on completion of all testing.

 

(5) 2 original copies of the reports must be provided to WHO (one copy for WHO and one which will be forwarded to the manufacturer by WHO)

 

Locations of temperature sensors

Figure 1: Chest freezers: plan view (E3/FR.1)

 

Figure 2: Chest freezers: front view

x 4

x 1

x

2

x

5

6 x

3 x

x 7, 8

9, 10 x

 

Figure 3: Icepack fast freezers (E3/FR2)

Front view Side view

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1, 2

x

1

2 x

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3

3 x

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5 x

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6 x

R

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10 x

8, 9, 10 x

 

Figure 4: Refrigerators with integral icepack freezing section (E3/RF1,2)

Front view Side view

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2

x

2

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3 x

x

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3

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D

O

(each shelf)

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12 x

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11

 

 

 

 

Figure 5: Refrigerator with separate freezer (E3/RF1,2)

Front view Side view

D

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3 x

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x 3 x

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x 11 x 12 x 13

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Figure 6: Chest type refrigerator/freezer (E3/RF1, 2, 4)

Front view Side view

LID

 

LID

 

x

1, 2, 3

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4, 5

6, 7, 8 x

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2 x

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9

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14, 15, 16 x

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11, 14

12, 15 x

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13

 

 

Figure 7: Icelined refrigerators and/or freezer (E3/RF3)

Plan view

x

1, 2

x

3, 4

5, 6 x

x

7

x

8

x

9

x

10, 11

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14, 15 x

 

Front view

LID

 

x

1, 10

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3, 12

5, 14 x

x

9

6, 15 x

x

2, 11

8, 4, 13 x

 

 

Glossary refrigerators & freezers

Manufacturers gross volume

This is taken as the manufacturer's stated gross volume or, for purposes of comparison, the internal free volume, including the space occupied by the freezing compartment, and the volume occupied by shelves, door storage space, etc., but excluding the space taken by the icelining, if there is any.

Icepacks

Flat plastic bottles filled with water which conform to Specifications E5/IP1 or E5/IP2.

Vaccine storage capacity

The vaccine storage capacity is a measure of the net space in a refrigerator, freezer, cold box or vaccine carrier available for the storage of vaccines. It is measured in the following ways:

Freezing compartment

As defined by the manufacturer and, for purposes of comparison, the internal free volume measured in litres ± 5%.

Icepack freezing capacity

Maximum weight of icepacks which can be frozen, in one batch, during a 24 hour freezing cycle while temperatures of vaccine storage remain within the limits: 0 to +8C (refrigerators) and below -15C (freezers), or -5イ for a limited period during the actual freezing process.

Holdover time

The time between switching off the appliance and when the warmest internal temperature reaches +10C for refrigerators and freezers at a given ambient temperature. Note : In order to calculate the minimum holdover time, the electricity supply should be switched off at the start of a new compressor cycle

Areas not suitable for vaccine storage

Certain areas of an otherwise acceptable appliance which are too warm, and should be excluded from use (e.g. vegetable drawer or door shelves in domestic refrigerators).

 

VACCINE/ICEPACK CHEST FREEZER, COMPRESSION

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/1

Applies to specification: E3/FR1

Date of last revision: 1 January 199828 October1 September 1997

1. Cool DownStabilization at 43イ (appliance empty)

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

Procedure:

The test room should be set to +43C with the appliance empty, the door open and the power supply switched off for a period of 48 hours. The lid of the freezer should then be closed, the appliance switched on and left to stabilize, with the thermostat/fast freeze switch on its maximum setting. Temperatures should be recorded every hour during 24 hours. During this period the energy consumption should be measured and the compressor duty cycle determined. The duty cycle is measured by timing from the end of one cycle to the end of a corresponding cycle approximately 24 hours later. The percentage "on" time over this period is then calculated. Consumption is measured over the same time scale.

Test criteria for qualification:

Stabilized internal temperatures below -15C.

2. Stable running and consumption tests at 43ツ (appliance loaded)

Test condition: +43C.

Objectives:

Procedure:

With the thermostat adjusted on its maximum setting, the appliance should then be fully loaded and allowed to stabilize as above. Internal temperatures, energy consumption and compressor duty cycle are recorded. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat should be adjusted if possible and the test repeated. This new setting is referred to as the revised optimum. Note all thermostat settings.

Test criteria for qualification :

3. Icepack freezing capacity at 43イ

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

To determine the maximum quantity of icepacks which the appliance can freeze keeping the vaccine temperature below - 5C during the freezing process and returning to below -15イ by the end of the 24 h cycle.

Procedure:

The ability of the fast freeze compartment of the freezer to freeze icepacks without affecting vaccine storage is then measured. Ice-making capability is measured in kg per freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +43C. Fast freeze switches on freezers should be switched on at the start of this test, but thermostats should not be adjusted.

After stabilization place 11 icepacks filled with water (6.6 kg) at 43C, if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface. The icepacks and vaccines temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) and the vaccine load stays below -5イ and has returned to below -15イ by the end of the 24 h cycle, the icepacks are removed. The procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen or the vaccines do not stay in the correct temperature range. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity can be determined.

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

Test criteria for qualification:

More than 7 kg ice frozen in icepacks per 24 hours at +43C while maintaining vaccine storage temperatures below -5C and returning to below -15イ by the end of the 24 h cycle.

4. Holdover time at 43イ

Test condition: +43C

Fully loaded with vaccine but no icepacks, and with fast freeze compartment empty.

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Procedure:

After completion of the freezing tests, all icepacks are removed and a full load of vaccine is added. The freezer is then allowed to stabilize for 48 hours, loaded with vaccine but without icepacks. The electricity supply is then switched off at the moment that the thermostat switches on the compressor. Internal temperatures are monitored every hour. The time recorded for the warmest point to exceed +10C is reported

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

5. Day/night test

Test condition: +43C and +15C.

Objectives:

To determine the temperature range maintained in the freezer while ambient temperatures are varying during a day/night cycle.

Procedure:

Before the test, the appliance should be stabilized fully loaded with vaccine at an ambient temperature of +43C, but without icepacks, and allowed to run for a further 24 hours. The ambient temperature is then varied to simulate day/night temperatures. Over a 3 hour period the temperature is reduced to +15C and held at this temperature for 9 hours before being raised to +43C over a 3 hour period. It is held at 43C for a further 9 hours before being reduced to +15C again over a further 3 hour period. Five such day/night cycles are undertaken. During this time the internal Temperatures should be recorded every hour.

From the results the temperature range of the warmest and coldest recorded temperatures should be found.

Test criteria for qualification: Stabilized internal temperatures below -15C.

6. Maximum icepack freezing load at 43ツ

Test condition: +43C.

Objective:

To measure the quantity of icepacks that can be frozen without a vaccine load.. Ice-making capacity is measured in kg per freezing cycle

Procedure:

All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +43C. Fast freeze switches on freezers should be switched on at the time of loading, but thermostats should not be adjusted.

The icepack load should occupy one third of the internal gross volume as stated by the manufacturer, and the whole of the fast freeze area included in this volume. Temperatures inside the icepacks (as distributed in Figures 1 and 2 for E3/FR1 under General Test Conditions (E3), points 7 to 10 and 5 in the centre of the load) are monitored every hour and the load is assumed to be completely frozen when the temperature of the warmest icepack reaches -3C. Internal temperatures should be monitored throughout this test.

The maximum icepack freezing load is then reported as the weight of icepacks which has been completely frozen in 24 hours.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

 

7. Compressor starting test (freezer empty)

Test condition: +43C.

Objective:

To determine the minimum starting voltages of the appliance from cold and hot starts.

Procedure:

A minimum starting voltage, at which the appliance starts successfully in 10 out of 10 attempts, should be established. The voltage is reduced in 2% steps from a starting voltage 20% lower than the nominal voltage of the compressor. At each voltage the freezer should be started ten times from cold (compressor at ambient) and ten times hot (compressor at normal operating temperatures).

If the appliance presents starting problems, the reason for these should be established, if possible, and included in the final report.

Test criteria for qualification:

Ten out of ten starts successful in both cold start and hot start tests at a minimum of 22% below the manufacturers nominal voltage.

8. Electrical safety testing

Manufacturers should be requested to submit evidence that the appliance meets National or international Standards for Electrical Safety. In the absence of such evidence, then electrical safety should be checked to IEC 335-1 or any other later modification of the above

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.

9. Corrosion resistance

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

 

ICEPACK FAST FREEZERS, COMPRESSION

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/2

Applies to specification: E3/FR2

Date of last revision: 1 January 19981 September 1997

1. Cool down test

Test condition: +43C (appliance empty)

Objectives :

Procedure:

The test room should be set to +43C with the appliance empty, the door open and the power supply switched off for a period of 48 hours. The door of the freezer should then be closed, the appliance switched on and left to stabilize, with the fast freeze switch on or, if there is none, the thermostat on its maximum setting. Temperatures should be recorded every hour during 24 hours. During this period the energy consumption should be measured and the compressor duty cycle determined. The duty cycle is measured by timing from the end of one cycle to the end of a corresponding cycle approximately 24 hours later. The percentage "on" time over this period is then calculated. Consumption is measured over the same time scale.

2. Freezing and power consumption tests at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

Procedure:

2.1 The freezer is fully loaded with icepacks (conforming to Specification E5/IP1) which have been pre-conditioned to +43C and, if provided, the fast freeze switch is turned on. The icepacks are stacked vertically or horizontally; whichever arrangement is thought to give the best rate of freezing. If the manufacturer recommends a loading arrangement, this should be followed for at least one test cycle.

The number and overall weight of the icepack load is recorded before the test begins and the energy consumption is recorded throughout the test.

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

The internal temperature of selected icepacks is then monitored and recorded. When the warmest temperature recorded in the freezer reaches -3C the load is assumed to have been frozen. The period of time between the completion of loading of the icepack freezer and when the load is completely frozen is recorded.

2.2 Ice making capacity is then measured in kg per 24 hour freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +43C. Any air flow restrictor on refrigerators should be used for this test only. Fast freeze switches on freezers should be on, but thermostats should not be adjusted.

After stabilization place 25 icepacks filled with water (15 kg), if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface, or according to the manufacturers recommendation. The icepacks temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) the icepacks are removed and the procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen or the vaccines do not stay in the correct temperature range. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity is determined.

Test criteria for qualification:

3. Compressor starting test (Icepack freezer empty)

Test condition: +43C.

Objective:

To determine the minimum starting voltages of the appliance from cold and hot starts.

Procedure:

A minimum starting voltage, at which the appliance starts successfully in 10 out of 10 attempts, should be established. The voltage is reduced in 2% steps from a starting voltage 20% lower than the nominal voltage of the compressor. At each voltage the freezer should be started ten times from cold (compressor at ambient) and ten times hot (compressor at normal operating temperatures). The interval between starts (both hot and cold) should be at least 15 minutes.

If the appliance presents starting problems, the reason for these should be established, if possible, and included in the final report.

Test criteria for qualification:

Ten starts successful out of ten in both cold start and hot start tests at a minimum of 22% below the manufacturers nominal voltage.

4. Electrical safety testing

Manufacturers should be requested to submit evidence that the appliance meets National or international Standards for Electrical Safety. In the absence of such evidence, then electrical safety should be checked to IEC 335-1 or any other later modification of the above

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.

5. Corrosion resistance

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

 

REFRIGERATOR AND VACCINE OR ICEPACK FREEZER, COMPRESSION

Procedure Reference: E3/PROC/3

Applies to specification: E3/RF1

Date of last revision: 1 January 19981 September 1997

1. Cool down at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives :

Procedure:

The test room should be set to +32C with the appliance empty, the door open and the power supply switched off. After allowing stabilization to take place as per General Test Conditions (E3), procedure 2, the door should be closed, the appliance switched on, with the thermostat on its maximum setting, and left to stabilize.

Temperatures should be recorded every hour during 24 hours. During this period the energy consumption should be measured and the compressor duty cycle determined. The duty cycle is measured by timing from the end of one cycle to the end of a corresponding cycle approximately 24 hours later. The percentage "on" time over this period is then calculated. Consumption is measured over the same time scale and corrected to consumption per 24 hours.

Special care should be taken in reporting and analysing data for temperature distributions in refrigerators with separate vegetable compartments in the bottom (for example domestic appliances), which usually have much higher temperatures and are not normally used for storing vaccine. So that the values obtained for the vegetable compartment do not distort those of the main compartment, they should be reported and analysed separately.

Test criteria for qualification: None.

2. Stable running test at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives:

To determine the appliance capacity to maintain vaccine temperatures in the range 0C to 8C, or below -15イ when operating as a freezer, with continuous energy supply.

Procedure:

The appliance should be loaded, as specified in the General Test Conditions, procedure 3. After allowing for stabilization, with the thermostat set at medium position, internal temperatures, energy consumption and compressor duty cycle are recorded. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat should be adjusted if possible and the test repeated. This new setting is referred to as the optimum. Note all thermostat settings.

Test criteria for qualification:

All internal refrigerator temperatures to remain within the range 0 to +8C.

Temperatures in vaccine freezer compartments to remain below -15 イ.

3. Icepack freezing at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives:

To determine the maximum quantity of standard size of icepacks (E5/IP.1, or IP.2 if justified and specified by the manufacturer) which the appliance can freeze in 24 hours while maintaining the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C.

Procedure:

The ability of the freezers to freeze icepacks is then measured. Ice making capability is measured in kg per 24 hour freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +32C. Any air flow restrictor on refrigerators should be used for this test only. Fast freeze switches on freezers should be on, but thermostats should not be adjusted.

After stabilization place 2 icepacks filled with water (1.2 kg), if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface, or according to the manufacturers recommendation. The type of icepacks to use is E5/IP1, however E5/IP2 may be used if icepack trays are designed for that type only. The icepacks and vaccines temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) and the vaccine load stays between 0C and 8C the icepacks are removed and the procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen or the vaccines do not stay in the correct temperature range. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity can be determined.

The greatest load of icepacks which can be frozen without exceeding vaccine storage temperatures is recorded as the "icepack freezing capacity".

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

Test criteria for qualification:

At least 1.6 kgs and more than 2.5 kgs per 50 litres of gross volume (freezer compartment) frozen per 24 hours while maintaining the recommended vaccine temperature control.

4. Hold over time at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Procedure:

The appliance is allowed to stabilize loaded with vaccine in the refrigerator but without icepacks in the freezer compartment. The electricity supply is then switched off at the moment that the thermostat switches on the compressor. Internal temperatures are monitored every hour. The time recorded for the warmest point to exceed +l0C is reported.

Note : In order to calculate the minimum holdover time, the electricity supply should be switched off at the start of a new compressor cycle

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

5. Day/night test

Test condition: +43C/+15C, day/night, 12/12 hour cycle.

Objectives

To determine the appliance ability to maintain vaccine temperatures in the 0イ to 8イ range while the ambient temperature simulates a day (+43イ) / night (+15イ) cycle

Procedure:

Before the test, the appliance should be stabilized as in procedure 2 above at an ambient temperature of +32C and allowed to run for a further 24 hours. The ambient temperature is then varied to simulate day/night temperatures. Over a 2 hour period the temperature is reduced to +l5C, held at this temperature for 9 hours before being raised to +43C over a 3 hour period. It is held at +43C for a further 9 hours before being reduced to +l5C again over a further 3 hour period. Five such day/night cycles are undertaken. During this time the internal temperatures are monitored every hour .

The location of the warmest and coldest recorded vaccine temperatures should be identified and reported

Test criteria for qualification:

6. Stable running and power consumption tests at 43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives:

Procedure:

With the ambient temperature at +43C and with the thermostat adjusted on its maximum setting the appliance should be fully loaded and stabilized The internal temperatures, duty cycle and consumption are then determined as before. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat should be adjusted to give the results closest to a mean internal temperature of +4C and the measurements repeated. For freezers the thermostat should be adjusted to result in temperatures between -15C and -25C.

This setting is referred to as the optimum (+43C). Record the settings used and the internal temperatures achieved.

Test criteria for qualification:

7. Icepack freezing at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives:

To determine the maximum quantity of icepacks which the appliance can freeze while keeping the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C.

Procedure:

This test will only be carried out if the performance at +32C is satisfactory and suggests that the freezing capacity at +43C is likely to be greater than 1.6 kg.

The test described in procedure 3 above is repeated at 43イ. Estimates of the freezing load can be made from the previously obtained results.

Test criteria for qualification:

At least 1.6 kgs and more than 2.5 kgs per 50 litres of gross volume (freezer compartment) frozen per 24 hours while maintaining the recommended vaccine temperature control.

8. Holdover time at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Objectives:

To determine for how long the vaccine can stay inside the appliance at temperatures below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Procedure:

The appliance is first allowed to stabilize loaded with vaccine in the refrigerator, but without icepacks in the freezer and then switched off at the moment the thermostat turns on the compressor. The internal temperatures are monitored hourly. The time recorded for the warmest point to exceed +l0C is reported.

Test criteria for qualification:

Minimum 4 hours and more than six hours per 100 litres of gross internal volume.

9. Compressor starting test (appliance empty)

Test condition: +32C

Objective: To determine the minimum starting voltages from cold and hot starts.

Procedure:

A minimum starting voltage, at which the appliance starts successfully in 10 out of 10 attempts, should be established. The voltage is reduced in 2% steps from a starting voltage 20% lower than the nominal voltage of the compressor. At each voltage the freezer should be started ten times from cold (compressor at ambient) and ten times hot (compressor at normal operating temperatures).

If the appliance presents starting problems, the reason for these should be established, if possible, and included in the final report.

Test criteria for qualification:

Ten successful starts out of ten in both cold start and hot start tests at a minimum of 22% below the manufacturer's nominal voltage.

10. Corrosion resistance

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

11. Electrical safety testing

Manufacturers should be requested to submit evidence that the appliance meets National or international Standards for Electrical Safety. In the absence of such evidence, then electrical safety should be checked to IEC 335-1 or any other later modification of the above

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.

 

ICELINED REFRIGERAT&/OR FREEZER

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/4

Applies to specification: E3/RF3

Date of last revision: 1 January 199828 October1 September 1997

1. Cool down at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

Procedure:

The test room should be set to +43C with the appliance empty, the door open and the power supply switched off. After allowing stabilization to take place (48 hours), the lid should be closed, the appliance switched on, with the thermostat on its maximum setting, and left to stabilize as indicated in General Test Conditions, procedure 2.

Temperatures should be recorded every hour 24 hours. During this period the energy consumption should be measured and the compressor duty cycle determined. The duty cycle is measured by timing from the end of one cycle to the end of a corresponding cycle approximately 24 hours later. The percentage "on" time over this period is then calculated. Consumption is measured over the same time scale and corrected to consumption per 24 hours.

2. Stable running and power consumption tests at +43C
(continuous energy supply)

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

Procedure:

With the ambient temperature at +43C the appliance is loaded with full vaccine load and stabilized, the optimum thermostat setting is searched by starting with a medium position. The internal temperatures, duty cycle and consumption are then determined as before. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat should be adjusted to give the results closest to a mean internal temperature of +4C and the measurements repeated. For freezers thermostat should be adjusted to result in temperatures between -15C and -25C.

This setting is referred to as the optimum (+43C). Record the settings used and the internal temperatures achieved.

Test criteria for qualification:

Refrigerator temperatures must remain in the range 0C to +8C.

3. Stable running test at +43c (intermittent energy supply)

Test condition: +43C, intermittent energy.

Objectives

Procedure:

The previous test conditions are continued, but the electricity supply is interrupted for sixteen hours, continuously each 24 hour cycle for a total of twenty days. Energy consumption and compressor duty cycle are recorded.

Test criteria for qualification:

All internal refrigerator temperatures within the range 0C to +8C

4. Holdover time atAT +43C (intermittent energy supply)

Test condition: +43C, intermittent energy.

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain vaccine temperatures in the range 0C to 8C without electricity supply.

Procedure:

The appliance is first allowed to stabilize, loaded with vaccine only. The appliance is then operated under the same intermittent energy supply schemes above, for a period of 4 days. The electricity supply is then interrupted at the end of the 4th day at the start of a compressor ON phase. The length of time of the preceding compressor OFF period will also be reported. The internal temperatures are monitored hourly. The time between the moment the electricity supply is interrupted and the moment the warmest vaccine load temperature exceeds +10C is recorded and reported.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, but the recommended target is a holdover time of more than 20 hours in a continuous external temperature of +43イ. Performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

5. Day/night test (continuous energy supply)

Test condition: +43C/+15C, day/night, 12/12 hour cycle.

Objectives

To determine the appliance ability to maintain vaccine temperatures in the 0イ to 8イ range while the ambient temperature simulates a day (43イ) / night (15イ) cycle

Procedure:

Before the test, the appliance should be stabilized as in procedure 2 above at an ambient temperature of +43C and allowed to run for a further 24 hours. The ambient temperature is then varied to simulate day/night temperatures. Over a 3 hour period the temperature is reduced to +l5C, held at this temperature for 9 hours before being raised to +43C over a 3 hour period. It is held at +43C for a further 9 hours before being reduced to +l5C again over a further 3 hour period. Five such day/night cycles are undertaken. During this time the internal temperatures are monitored every hour .

From the results, the temperature range of the warmest and coldest recorded temperatures should be found.

Test criteria for qualification:

6. Stable running test at +32C (continuous energy supply)

Test condition: +32C, continuous energy.

Objectives:

Procedure:

With the thermostat adjusted in its medium setting the appliance should then be loaded as specified in the General Test Conditions (E3). After allowing for stabilization, internal temperatures, energy consumption and compressor duty cycle are recorded. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat should be adjusted if possible and the test repeated. This new setting is referred to as the revised optimum (+32C). Note all thermostat settings.

Test criteria for qualification:

All internal temperatures within the range:

7. Stable running test at +32C (intermittent energy supply)

Test condition: +32C, intermittent energy.

Objectives:

 

Procedure:

The previous test conditions are continued, but the electricity supply is interrupted for sixteen hours continuously each 24 hour cycle for a total of 20 days. Energy consumption and compressor duty cycle are recorded.

Test criteria for qualification:

All internal refrigerator temperatures within the range:

8. Icepack freezing at +32c (intermittent energy supply)
(Test only for freezers or appliances with freezing compartment)

Test condition: +32C, intermittent energy supply

Objectives :

Procedure:

The ability of the appliance to freeze icepacks without affecting vaccine storage is then measured. Ice-making capability is measured in kg per freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +32C. Fast freeze switches should be switched on at the start of this test, but thermostats should not be adjusted.

After stabilization, place the number of icepacks recommended by the manufacturer (or the number based on an estimated freezing capacity), if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface. The icepacks and vaccines temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) and the vaccine load stays within the range defined in the objectives, the icepacks are removed. The procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen or the vaccines do not stay in the correct temperature range. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity can be determined.

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

9. Holdover time at +32C (intermittent energy supply)

Test condition: +32C, intermittent energy supply

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Objective:

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain vaccine temperatures in the range 0C to 8C without electricity supply.

Procedure:

The appliance is first allowed to stabilize, loaded with vaccine only. The appliance is then operated under the same intermittent energy supply schemes above, for a period of 4 days. The electricity supply is then interrupted at the end of the 4th day at the start of a compressor ON phase. The length of time of the preceding compressor OFF period will also be reported. The internal temperatures are monitored hourly. The time between the moment the electricity supply is interrupted and the moment the warmest vaccine load temperature exceeds +10C is recorded and reported.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

10. Compressor starting test at 32ツC (appliance empty)

Test condition: +32C.

Objective

To determine the minimum starting voltages of the appliance from cold and hot starts.

Procedure:

A minimum starting voltage, at which the appliance starts successfully in 10 out of 10 attempts, should be established. The voltage is reduced in 2% steps from a starting voltage 20% lower than the nominal voltage of the compressor. At each voltage the freezer should be started ten times from cold (compressor at ambient temperature) and ten times hot (compressor at normal operating temperatures).

If the appliance presents starting problems, the reason for these should be established, if possible, and included in the final report.

Test criteria for qualification:

Ten starts successful out of ten in both cold start and hot start tests at a minimum of 22% below the manufacturer's nominal voltage.

11. Electrical safety testing

Manufacturers should be requested to submit evidence that the appliance meets National or international Standards for Electrical Safety. In the absence of such evidence, then electrical safety should be checked to IEC 335-1 or any other later modification of the above

 

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.

11. Corrosion resistance

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

 

REFRIGERATOR AND ICEPACK FREEZER, ABSORPTION

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/5

Applies to specification: E3/RF2

Date of last revision: 1 January 199828 October 1997

1. Cool down at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives :

To determine in how much time and at which temperatures the refrigerator internal temperatures stabilize with the thermostat on its maximum setting. To determine the fuel consumption or the electrical resistance working time during the test.

Procedure:

The test room should be set to +32C with the appliance empty, the door open and the power supply switched off. After allowing stabilization to take place (48 hours), the door should be closed, the appliance switched on, with the flame/thermostat on its maximum setting, and left to stabilize.

Temperatures should be recorded every hour during 24 hours. During this period the energy consumption should be measured and reported as consumption per 24 hours.

Special care should be taken in reporting and analysing data for temperature distributions in refrigerators with separate vegetable compartments in the bottom (domestic refrigerators), which usually have much higher temperatures and are not to be used for storing vaccine. In order that the values obtained for the vegetable compartment do not distort those of the main compartment, they should be reported and analysed separately.

Test criteria for qualification: None.

2. Stable running test at +32c

Test condition: +32C.

Objectives:

To determine the capacity of the appliance to keep the vaccine between 0C and 8C and the optimum thermostat setting to achieve it. To determine the fuel consumption and/or the electrical resistance working time.

Procedure:

The appliance should be loaded, as specified in the General Testing Conditions. After allowing 48 hours for stabilization with a thermostat set at a medium position, internal temperatures, and fuel consumption are recorded. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat/flame should be adjusted if possible and the test repeated. This new setting is referred to as the optimum. Note all thermostat/flame settings.

Test criteria for qualification:

All internal refrigerator temperatures within the range 0C to +8C.

 

3. Icepack freezing at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives:

To determine the maximum quantity of icepacks which the appliance can freeze in a 24 h cycle, while keeping the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C.

Procedure:

The ability of the freezing compartment to freeze icepacks is then measured. Ice-making capability is measured in kg. per freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +32C. Any air flow restrictor on refrigerators should be used for this test only. Thermostat/flame should not be adjusted.

After stabilization place 4 icepacks filled with water (2.4 kg) at 32C, if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface. The icepacks and vaccines tempertures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) and the vaccine load stays between 0C and 8C the icepacks are removed and the procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen or the vaccines do not stay in the correct temperature range. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity can be determined.

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

Test criteria for qualification:

At least 2.4 kg of icepacks frozen within a period of 24 hours while maintaining the above vaccine temperature control.

4. Hold over time at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the energy supply (electricity, kerosene or gas) is switched off.

Objectives:

To determine for how long the vaccine inside the appliance remains at temperatures between 0C and 8C from the moment the energy (electricity, kerosene or gas) supply is switched off.

Procedure:

The appliance is allowed to stabilize for 48 hours loaded with vaccine in the refrigerator but without icepacks in the freezer compartment. The energy supply should then be switched off at the moment the thermometer switches the compressor on. Internal temperatures are monitored every hour . The time recorded for the warmest point to exceed +l0C for refrigerators is reported.

Test criteria for qualification: Minimum 3 hours hold over time.

 

5. Day/night test

Test condition: +32C/+15C, day/night, 12/12 hour cycle.

Objectives:

To determine the appliance ability to maintain vaccine temperatures in the 0イ to +108イ range while the ambient temperature simulates a day (+32イ) / night (+15イ) cycle

Procedure:

Before the test, the appliance should be stabilized as described in paragraph 2 at an ambient temperature of +32C and allowed to run for a further 24 hours. The ambient temperature is then varied to simulate day/night temperatures. Over a 3 hour period the temperature is reduced to +l5C, held at this temperature for 9 hours before being raised to +32C over a 3 hour period. It is held at +32C for a further 9 hours before being reduced to +l5C again over a further 3 hour period. Five such day/night cycles are undertaken. The internal temperatures are monitored every hour for the duration of the test.

The location of the warmest and coldest recorded temperatures should be identified and reported.

Test criteria for qualification:

Refrigerator temperatures must remain in the range 0C to +10C.

6. Stable Running test at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives:

To determine the capacity to keep the vaccine between 0C and 8C and the optimum thermostat setting to achieve it. To determine the consumption and the compressor duty cycle.

Procedure:

With the ambient temperature at +43C the appliance is loaded and stabilized, for at least 48 hours with the thermostat/flame at the revised optimum setting. The internal temperatures and consumption are then determined as before. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat/flame should be adjusted to give the results closest to a mean internal temperature of +4C and the measurements repeated.

This new setting is referred to as the revised optimum (+43C). Record the settings used and the internal temperatures achieved.

Test criteria for qualification:

Refrigerator temperatures must remain in the range -0C to +8C.

 

7. Icepack freezing at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives:

To determine the maximum quantity of Icepacks which the appliance can freeze keeping the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C..

Procedure:

This test needs only be carried out if the performance at +32C is satisfactory and suggests that the freezing capacity at +43C is likely to be greater than 0.5 kg.

The test described in procedure 3 above is repeated at 43イ. Estimates of the freezing load can be made from the previously obtained results.

Test criteria for qualification: None set.

8. Holdover time at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the energy supply (electricity, kerosene or gas) is switched off.

Objectives:

To determine for how long the vaccine can stay inside the appliance at temperatures between 0C and 8C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Procedure:

The appliance is first allowed to stabilize and then switched off at the moment the thermometer switches the compressor on. The internal temperatures are monitored hourly. The time recorded for the warmest point to exceed +l0C for refrigerator is reported.

Test criteria for qualification: None set

9. Day/night test

Test condition: +43C/+15C, day/night, 12/12 hour cycle.

Objectives:

To determine the appliance ability to maintain vaccine temperatures in the 0イ to +108イ range while the ambient temperature simulates a day (+43イ) / night (+15イ) cycle.

Procedure:

Before the test, the appliance should be stabilized as in paragraph 2 at an ambient temperature of +32C and allowed to run for a further 24 hours. The ambient temperature is then varied to simulate day/night temperatures. Over a 2 hour period the temperature is reduced to +l5C, held at this temperature for 9 hours before being raised to +43C over a 3 hour period. It is held at +43C for a further 9 hours before being reduced to +l5C again over a further 3 hour period. Five such day/night cycles are undertaken. During this time the internal temperatures are monitored hourly.

From the results the temperature range of the warmest and coldest recorded temperatures should be found.

Test criteria for qualification: None set

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

10. Corrosion resistance

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

11. Electrical safety testing

Manufacturers should be requested to submit evidence that the appliance meets National or international Standards for Electrical Safety. In the absence of such evidence, then electrical safety should be checked to IEC 335-1 or any other later modification of the above

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.

 

ICEPACK FREEZER, ABSORPTION

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/6

Applies to specification: E3/FR4

Date of last revision: 1 January 19981 September 1997

1. Icepack freezing at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives:

Procedure:

1.1 The empty icepack freezer is allowed to stabilize at maximum flame/thermostat setting in an ambient temperature of 32イ. Ice making capacity is measured in kg per 24 hour freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +32C.

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

Fuel consumption and/or electrical resistance working time are measured during the test.

After stabilization place icepacks (conforming to Specification E5/IP1) filled with water, if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface, or according to the manufacturers recommendation. The number of icepacks should be based on the manufacturers recommendation or on an initial estimate of icepack freezing capacity, with a minimum of 3 per 50 litre gross volume. The icepacks temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) the icepacks are removed and the procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity is determined.

If the number of icepacks that can be frozen per 24 hours exceeds the contents of the freezer or freezer compartment, the number of hours it takes to freeze a full load is recorded.

1.2 To determine the capacity to store frozen icepacks, while maintaining their temperature below -3イ, frozen icepacks are placed in the freezer or in the storage compartment if available. The number of icepacks should be minimum 10, or the number found in the icepack freezing capacity test, whichever higher. The icepacks temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load remains frozen (below -3C) the icepacks are removed and the procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack does not remain completely frozen. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the capacity to store frozen icepack is determined.

Test criteria for qualification:

2. Electrical safety

Manufacturer should provide evidence of conformity with one of the following standards: VDE, BEAB. If no evidence is provided, an inspection should be made including the following points:

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.

3. Corrosion

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

 

SOLAR (PV) REFRIGERATOR/ICEPACK FREEZER

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/7

Applies to specification: E3/RF4

Date of last revision: 1 January 199828 October 1997

Power supply system

In all the performance tests of the refrigeration equipment a direct current source in the appropriate voltage and current ranges, as recommended by manufacturer must be used.

1. Cool down test at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objective:

Procedure:

The test room should be set to +32C with the appliance empty, the door open and the power supply switched off. After allowing stabilization to take place (48 hours), the door should be closed, the appliance switched on, with the thermostat on its optimum setting, and left to stabilize.

Temperatures should then be recorded every hour for 24 hours. During this period the energy consumption should be measured and the compressor duty cycle determined. The duty cycle is measured by timing from the end of one cycle to the end of a corresponding cycle approximately 24 hours later. The percentage "on" time over this period is then calculated. Consumption is measured over the same time scale and corrected to consumption per 24 hours.

Test criteria for qualification: None set.

2. Stable running test and power consumption

Test condition: +32C

Objective:

Procedure:

The appliance should then be loaded, as specified in the General Testing Conditions, E3. After allowing for stabilization (see General Test Conditions, procedure 2), internal temperatures, energy consumption and duty cycle are recorded. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat should be adjusted if possible and the test repeated.

Notes:

Test criteria for qualification:

3. Icepack freezing and storage of frozen icepacks at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives:

To determine the quantity of icepacks which the appliance can freeze, in one cycle, while keeping the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C. To determine the ability of the refrigerator to maintain a load of frozen icepacks.

3.1 Icepack freezing

The ability of the freezers to freeze icepacks is then measured. Ice making capability is measured in kg per freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +32C. Any air flow restrictor on refrigerators should be used for this test only. Fast freeze switches on freezers should be on, but thermostats should not be adjusted.

At least 2.0 kg of icepacks conforming to Specification E5/IP1 or IP2 are placed in the freezing compartment the edges perpendicular to the evaporator plate or as directed in the manufacturers instructions. The thermocouples available for the freezer should be distributed as uniformly as possible in the packs which are loaded each time..

Temperatures inside the icepacks are monitored every hour and the load is assumed to be completely frozen when the temperature of the warmest icepack reaches -3C.

Internal refrigerator temperatures should be monitored throughout this test. If the temperatures in the vaccine load exceed the range 0C to +8C during the freezing test, the vaccine temperatures should be recorded as well as the location of the boxes which have suffered exposure to unacceptable temperatures. The test is not repeated. Energy consumption is measured and corrected to consumption per 24 hours and recorded.

Test criteria for qualification:

At least 2.0 kg ice frozen per 24 hours.

3.2 Storage of frozen icepacks

The conditions of the above test are maintained.

If the icepack freezing test at 34.1 was successful then the appliance is allowed to stabilize for a period of 24 hours and another freezing cycle is conducted. The icepacks frozen during the initial cycle are left in the freezer compartment and a new load of unfrozen packs is introduced and test 34.1 is repeated.

This cycle is repeated again twice if the volume of the icepacks freezer allows it.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

The objective is that the appliance should be able to maintain at least 16 frozen icepacks conforming to standard E5/IP2.

4. Hold over time at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Objective:

To determine the ability of the refrigerator cabinet to maintain vaccines temperatures between 0C and 8C if the electricity supply fails.

Procedure:

The appliance is allowed to stabilize as above loaded with vaccine in the refrigerator but without icepacks in the freezer compartment and then switched off just at the time that the compressor is turned on by the thermostat. Internal temperatures are monitored every hour. The time recorded for the warmest point to exceed +l0C for refrigerators and freezers is reported.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

5. Day/night test

Test condition: +43C/+15C, day/night, 12/12 hour cycle.

Objectives:

To determine the appliance ability to maintain vaccine temperatures in the 0イ to 8イ range while the ambient temperature simulates a day (+43イ) / night (+15イ) cycle.

Procedure:

Before the test, the appliance should be stabilized as in the General Test Conditions, procedure 2, at an ambient temperature of +32C and allowed to run for a further 24 hours. The ambient temperature is then varied to simulate day/night temperatures. Over a 2 hour period the temperature is reduced to +l5C, held at this temperature for 9 hours before being raised to +43C over a 3 hour period. It is held at +43C for a further 9 hours before being reduced to +l5C again over a further 3 hour period. Five such day/night cycles are undertaken. Temperatures should be recorded every hour during 24 hours.

The warmest and coldest recorded temperatures as well as the precise location of the sensors should be recorded .

Test criteria for qualification:

Vaccine load temperatures must remain in the range 0C to +8C.

6. Stable running test at 43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives:

Procedure:

With the ambient temperature at +43C the appliance is loaded and stabilized, with the thermostat at the revised optimum setting. The internal temperatures, duty cycle and consumption are then determined as before. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat should be adjusted to give the results closest to a mean internal temperature of +4C and the measurements repeated. If the thermostat cannot be adjusted, then the laboratory should contact WHO to take a decision on whether the test should be terminated.

Test criteria for qualification:

7. Icepack freezing at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives:

To confirm that the appliance can freeze the required minimum quantity of standards icepacks and determine the amount of frozen icepacks which can be safely stored while keeping the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C.

Procedure:

The ability of the freezers to freeze icepacks is then measured. Ice making capability is measured in kg per freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +43C. Any air flow restrictor on refrigerators should be used for this test only. Fast freeze switches on freezers should be on, but thermostats should not be adjusted.

At least 2.0 kg of icepacks conforming to Specification E5/IP1 or IP/2 are placed in the freezing compartment the edges perpendicular to the evaporator plate or as directed in the manufacturers instructions. Temperatures inside the icepacks are monitored hourly and the load is assumed to be completely frozen when the temperature of the warmest icepack reaches -3C.

Internal refrigerator temperatures should be monitored throughout this test. If the temperatures in the vaccine load exceed the range 0C to +8C during the freezing test, the vaccine temperatures should be recorded as well as the location of the boxes which have suffered exposure to unacceptable temperatures. The test is not repeated. Energy consumption is measured and corrected to consumption per 24 hours and recorded.

 

Test criteria for qualification: At least 2.0 kg ice frozen per 24 hours.

8. Holdover time at +43c

Test condition: +43C

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the electricity supply is switched off.

Objective: To determine the ability of the refrigerator cabinet to maintain vaccines temperatures between 0C and 8C when the electricity supply fails.

Procedure:

The appliance is first allowed to stabilize and then switched off at the time that the compressor is turned on by the thermostat. The internal temperatures are monitored every hour. The time recorded for the warmest and coldest points to exceed +l0C for refrigerators and freezers is reported.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets.

9. Corrosion

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard.

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

 

SMALL REFRIGERATOR, ABSORPTION

Procedure reference: E3/PROC/8

Applies to specification: E3/RF6

Date of last revision: 1 January 199828 October 1997

1. Cool down at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives :

To determine in how much time and at which temperatures the refrigerator internal temperatures stabilize with the thermostat on its maximum setting. To determine the fuel consumption or the electrical resistance working time during the test.

Procedure:

The test room should be set to +32C with the appliance empty, the door open and the power supply switched off. After allowing stabilization to take place (48 hours), the door should be closed, the appliance switched on, with the flame/thermostat on its maximum setting, and left to stabilize.

Temperatures should be recorded every hour during 24 hours. During this period the energy consumption should be measured and reported as consumption per 24 hours.

Special care should be taken in reporting and analysing data for temperature distributions in refrigerators with separate vegetable compartments in the bottom (domestic refrigerators), which usually have much higher temperatures and are not to be used for storing vaccine. In order to avoid that the values obtained for the vegetable compartment distort those of the main compartment, they should be reported and analysed separately.

Test criteria for qualification: None.

2. Stable running test at +32c

Test condition: +32C.

Objectives:

To determine the capacity of the appliance to keep the vaccine between 0C and 8C and the optimum thermostat setting to achieve it. To determine the fuel consumption and/or the electrical resistance working time.

Procedure:

The appliance should be loaded, as specified in the General Testing Conditions. After allowing 48 hours for stabilization with a thermostat set at a medium position, internal temperatures, and fuel consumption are recorded. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat/flame should be adjusted if possible and the test repeated. This new setting is referred to as the optimum at 32C. Note all thermostat/flame settings.

Test criteria for qualification:

All internal refrigerator temperatures within the range 0C to +8C.

 

3. Icepack freezing at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives:

To determine the maximum quantity of icepacks which the appliance can freeze in a 24 h cycle, while keeping the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C.

Procedure:

The ability of the freezing compartment to freeze icepacks is then measured. Ice-making capability is measured in kg. per freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +32C. Any air flow restrictor on refrigerators should be used for this test only. Thermostat/flame should not be adjusted.

After stabilization, place the number of icepacks recommended by the manufacturer (or the number based on an estimated freezing capacity), if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface. The type of icepacks to use is E5/IP1, however E5/IP2 may be used if icepack trays are designed for that type only. The icepacks and vaccines temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) and the vaccine load stays between 0C and 8C the icepacks are removed and the procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen or the vaccines do not stay in the correct temperature range. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity can be determined.

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets

4. Hold over time at +32c

Test condition: +32C

Objectives :

To determine for how long the appliance can maintain the vaccine load below +10C from the moment the energy supply (electricity, kerosene or gas) is switched off.

Objectives:

To determine for how long the vaccine inside the appliance remains at temperatures between 0C and 8C from the moment the energy (electricity, kerosene or gas) supply is switched off.

Procedure:

The appliance is allowed to stabilize for 48 hours loaded with vaccine in the refrigerator but without icepacks in the freezer compartment. The energy supply should then be switched off at the moment the thermometer switches the compressor on. Internal temperatures are monitored every hour . The time recorded for the warmest point to exceed +l0C for refrigerators is reported.

Test criteria for qualification: Minimum 3 hours hold over time.

5. Day/night test

Test condition: +32C/+15C, day/night, 12/12 hour cycle.

Objectives:

To determine the appliance ability to maintain vaccine temperatures in the 0イ to +108イ range while the ambient temperature simulates a day (+32イ) / night (+15イ) cycle

Procedure:

Before the test, the appliance should be stabilized as described in paragraph 2 at an ambient temperature of +32C and allowed to run for a further 24 hours. The ambient temperature is then varied to simulate day/night temperatures. Over a 3 hour period the temperature is reduced to +l5C, held at this temperature for 9 hours before being raised to +32C over a 3 hour period. It is held at +32C for a further 9 hours before being reduced to +l5C again over a further 3 hour period. Five such day/night cycles are undertaken. The internal temperatures are monitored every hour for the duration of the test.

The location of the warmest and coldest recorded temperatures should be identified and reported.

Test criteria for qualification:

Refrigerator temperatures must remain in the range 0C to +10C.

6. Stable running test at +15c

Test condition: +15C.

Objectives:

To determine the capacity of the appliance to keep the vaccine between 0C and 8C and the optimum thermostat setting to achieve it. To determine the fuel consumption and/or the electrical resistance working time.

Procedure:

The temperature of the chamber is reduced to 15C . After allowing 48 hours for stabilization with a thermostat set at a medium position, internal temperatures, and fuel consumption are recorded. If the internal temperatures are not correct, the thermostat/flame should be adjusted if possible and the test repeated. This new setting is referred to as the optimum at 15C. Note all thermostat/flame settings.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets

7. Icepack freezing at +15c

Test condition: +15C

Objectives:

To determine the maximum quantity of icepacks which the appliance can freeze, while keeping the vaccine temperature between 0C and 8C.

Procedure:

The ability of the freezing compartment to freeze icepacks is then measured. Ice-making capability is measured in kg. per freezing cycle. All icepacks to form part of the freezing load should be pre-conditioned at +15C. Any air flow restrictor on refrigerators should be used for this test only. Thermostat/flame should not be adjusted.

After stabilization, place the number of icepacks recommended by the manufacturer (or the number based on an estimated freezing capacity), if possible in a row and with the edges perpendicular to the evaporator surface. The type of icepacks to use is E5/IP1, however E5/IP2 may be used if icepack trays are designed for that type only. The icepacks and vaccines temperatures must be recorded every hour during the following 24 hours. If the ice load is frozen (below -3C) and the vaccine load stays between 0C and 8C the icepacks are removed and the procedure is repeated every 24 hours increasing the amount of icepacks each time by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. This is the way to proceed until 1 or more icepack is not completely frozen or the vaccines do not stay in the correct temperature range. The icepacks are removed and the amount of newly introduced icepacks is reduced by a number that seems appropriate to achieve the objective. The successive increase and decrease of the number of icepacks to be introduced will be repeated until the icepack freezing capacity can be determined.

The available thermocouples for the freezer must be distributed as uniformly as possible between the loaded icepacks.

Test criteria for qualification:

No standard set, however performance data will be published in the WHO/UNICEF Product Information Sheets

8. Corrosion resistance

Manufacturers should be requested by the laboratory to provide evidence that appliance meets national of international standards for corrosion resistance. In the absence of such evidence then resistance to corrosion will be checked to DIN 8985 or any later revision of this standard

Procedure: According to DIN 8985.

Test criteria for qualification: Meet DIN 8985.

9. Electrical safety testing

Manufacturers should be requested to submit evidence that the appliance meets National or international Standards for Electrical Safety. In the absence of such evidence, then electrical safety should be checked to IEC 335-1 or any other later modification of the above

Procedure:

Test procedures are drawn from IEC 335-1 (1991) and Amendment 1 (1994-11), 'Safety of household and similar electrical appliances', following the clauses listed in Annex 8.

Test criteria for qualification: Pass on listed clauses of IEC 335-1.