The objectives were to design and manufacture special high tech medical vehicles. The vans will be used in various Sub-Saharan African countries as mobile health clinics serving remote rural areas.
They will be equipped with:
Since batteries are charged when travelling, RV (Recreational Vehicles) normally depend mostly on the vehicles alternator for the primary power source. Power to change the battery bank is also provided through a converter when plugged into the utility. While most of our RVs system use 1 or 2 modules, it is important to analyze our power needs. Just as with all PV systems we need to consider the wattage of the appliances and lights your powering as well as the average hours used each day.
Phase 1: refrigerator and freezer.
Phase 2 : photovoltaic cells.
Phase 3 : automotive.
Phase 4 : on board equipment.
Phase 5 : utilities.
Phase 1 :
We chose a 50 l (1,8 cubic feet) refrigerator. In the following, we are going to give you its characteristics.
Power consumption : less than 0,7 kW/day
In continuous ambient temperature of +32°C and +43°C, the internal temperature of the refrigerator, when stabilized and fully loaded with the standard vaccine load, shall not exceed the range of 0°C to +8°C.
At least 2.0 kg of ice-packs are placed in the freezing compartment. Temperatures inside the ice-packs are monitored hourly and the load is assumed to be completely frozen when the temperature of the warmest ice-pack reaches 3°C.
Phase 1 cost : available soon
Photovoltaic solar energy:
Photovoltaic conversion was discovered by French physicist A.Becquerel in 1839. It is the only means known for converting light directly into electricity. The basic component of this conversion is the photovoltaic cell. It makes use of properties found in semi-conductor materials used in the electronics industry: diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, etc. Sunshine is converted into electricity by photovoltaic cells. To place a scale on solar energy, remember that the Earth receives 1.6 billion kilowatts from the sun annually, but of those only 40% come directly to us, since the rest is reflected by the upper layers of the atmosphere. The "infinitesimal" part that human beings can capture and transform into useable energy is several hundred times greater than the world's annual energy consumption.
Dispensaries: One particular characteristic of dispensaries is that they are often isolated but require a reliable and available energy source . their specific needs are mainly for refrigeration to preserve vaccines, but also include lighting and small machinery.
Here, Photoenergy provides the assurance of energy that is always available and is suited to this type of application. Photovoltaic generators are sized to prevent any risk of power cut-offs.
Within the framework of the Widened Vaccination Program, UNICEF and WHO have already installed several thousands solar refrigerators, proving once again that the photovoltaics is the best suited solution for this type of application.
In order to provide energy to the vans, photovoltaic cells is the solution because the specific needs of the van are almost the same than dispensaries ones.
First of all, we must now which equipments require energy, that is to say:
Daily consumption: 750*24 + 50*4= 17000 WH/day
Maximum Power needed: 17000*0.43=7310 Wc
Numbers of cells modulus: 15 modulus, power 49Wc, i.e. 735 Wc
15 cell modules are required, the van must be a 4 meters length and a 2 meters wide.
Phase 2 cost : 15 x 250 = 3750 $
Because of the size of photovoltaic cells and their numbers, the vehicle has to measure at least 4 m (13,1 feet) long and 2,30 m (7,5 feet) wide. So we chose an IVECO vehicle. IVECO is an automotive society which provides vehicles for professionals.
Phase 3 cost : 25000 $
The on-board equipment is composed of:
This system will allow the three people in charge of the expedition to communicate in case of danger or if they got accidentally lost, or in a totally despair.
This machine will be used by our people, roughly for 4 hours per day. A more convenient and easy management of their actions, vaccinations will be possible thanks to this one. We evaluated the power consumption of the computer around 50W/h.
For the Sub-Saharan African countries such as Cameroon, Zaire, Central Republic African, Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, the highest average temperature is 40°C (around 110°F). That is the reason why a fan will be very useful for the passengers. This fan should be on all the time, and related to the engine of the van.
To make the life on board more pleasant and convenient, two foldable seats will be put in the van.
This cabinet will be used to store mixing chemicals, sterilizing syringes, paperwork, pastilles to purify water The measures of the cabinet are 1m long, 0,5m wide and 0,8m high.
Our people will need it for sure. Indeed, they need a comfortable situation to manipulate the chemical products and get ready the syringes for vaccinations.
Phase 4 cost : available soon
We also foresaw some first utilities stores added to the on-board equipment:
It is necessary to foresee a fuel store for 500 miles of independent operation. We need a full tank to drive 500 miles. 50 liters are considered needed to drive so long for our vehicle.
Each person needs about 3 liters per day. Since they are three of them in the van, 10 liters of water are needed. Plus, three independent operation days demand 30 liters overall. We add 8 liters more of water for the ice-packs in the freezer.